Matičnjak (Melissa officinalis L.)
BILJNI PREPARATI MATIČNJAKA: Melissa officinalis L.
TINKTURA, MATIČNJAK HSS hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušenog lista biljke, DER 1:5,
MATIČNA TINKTURA, MATIČNJAK TM hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt svežeg lista biljke, DER 1:2 (Fr. Ph.2003.).
Matičnjak je poznat od najstarijih vremena te ga opisuju i hvale mnogi prirodoslovci starih kultura. Najbolji poznavalac matičnjaka, Mattioli, za njega kaže da matičnjak ima izvanredno dobro svojstvo jer jača i oživljava srce, naročito onome ko ima noćne strahove i kome srce ubrzano lupa i smeta miru. Matičnjak čisti krv, otklanja neraspoloženje i tugu, te pomaže gotovo svim unutrašnjim organima. Plinije preporučuje smešu soka matičnjaka za oči, a Hildegarda za matičnjak kaže da će se uvek smejati ko ga jede, jer njegova toplina zahvata slezenu i srce koje tako postaje radosno.
Cela biljka miriše na limun, a ukus je aromatičan.
BILJNI PREPARATI MATIČNJAKA: Melissa officinalis L.
TINKTURA, MATIČNJAK HSS, hidroetanolni tečni ekstakt sušenih listova biljke, DER 1:5,
MATIČNA TINKTURA, MATIČNJAK TM, hidroetanolni tečni ekstakt svežih listova biljke, DER 1:2.
Melissae folium siccum extractum ethanolicum liquidum DER 1:5,
Melissae folium recentis extractum ethanolicum liquidum DER 1:2 (Fr. Ph.2003.).
U skladu sa:
1) Based on Article 10a of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (well-established use), Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use), DIRECTIVE 2004/24/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 31 March 2004.
2) Eu. Ph. 7, 2008. monografijom: Melissae folii extractum siccum 1319, Melissae folium 1318
3) European Medicines Agency, London, 14 May 2013, Doc. Ref.: EMA/HMPC/196745/2012, Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC): Community herbal monograph on Melissa officinalis L., folium
4) European Medicines Agency, London, 14 May 2013, Doc. Ref.: EMEA/HMPC/196746/2012: EMA/HMPC/Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC): Assessment report on Melissa officinalis L., folium (Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use)
5) The General Chapters and General Monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia and Preamble of the French Pharmacopoeia apply.
2003. Fr. Ph. ANSM: Melissa officinalis ad praeparationes homoeopathicas (Lemon balm for homoeopathic preparations)
6) WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants – Volume 2 Folium Melissae
Lemon balm mother tincture complies with the requirements of the general technique for the preparation of mother tinctures (see Homoeopathic Preparations (1038) and French Pharmacopoeia Authority Supplement). The mother tincture is prepared with ethanol (65 per cent V/V), using the fresh aerial parts of Melissa officinalis L.
Biljni preparati u tečnom obliku (nerazblaženi ili razblaženi) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.
a) Melissa officinalis L., (fresh aerial parts of Melissa officinalis L., harvested before flowering), method 3a.
a) tečni ekstrat (DER 1:2), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% (v/v),
Melissa officinalis L., sadrži 125 istraženih hemijskih jedinjenja koja ispoljavaju 368 istraženih dejstava ( ažurirano maja 2017.).
a) minimalno 0,025 m/m rozmarinske kiseline (rosmarinic acid) (MF: C18H16O8, MW: 360,318 g/mol−1), …
b) u većoj koncentraciji sadrži Major components of lemon balm are reported to include hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, particularly rosmarinic acid, caffeic acids, chlorogenic acid, and metrilic acid, tannins, flavonoids, including luteolin, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin 3′-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, monoterpene glycosides, sesquiterpenes, including ß-caryophyllene and germacrene, triterpenes, and volatile oils, including citronellal, citral a (geranial), citral b (neral), methyl citronellate, ocimene, citronellol, geraniol, nerol, ß-caryophyllene, ß-caryophyllene oxide, linalool, and ethric oil.
The volatile oil comprises 0.5-0.1% of the plant by weight, and citronellal, geranial, and neral constitute about 50-70% of this oil.
Eugenylglycoside has been isolated from lemon balm leaves. The chemical composition of lemon balm tea yielded 10mg/L of essential oil (74% citral) and large amounts of polyphenol compounds.
Steam distillates of lemon balm callus cultures yielded dehydroabietane and another diterpene hydrocarbon, with the relative proportion of those two compounds varying considerably during cultivation passage.
c) više od svih biljaka sadrži
biljni preparati su namenjeni poboljšanju opšteg stanja organizma kroz razna naučno dokazana dejstva.
Upotreba kod psihičkih (blage stresne situacije, nesanica-pomoć pri uspavljivanju) i gastrointestinalnih tegoba (dispepsija, nadutost).
Uses supported by clinical data
Externally, for symptomatic treatment of herpes labialis.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine
Orally as a carminative for gastrointestinal disorders, and as a sedative for treatment of nervous disturbances of sleep.
Treatment of amenorrhoea, asthma, bee stings, coughs, dizziness, dysmenorrhoea, migraine headaches, tachycardia, toothache, tracheobronchitis and urinary incontinence.
European Medicines Agency:
Traditionally used in the symptomatic treatment of digestive upsets such as:
epigastric distension, slow digestion, eructation, flatulence.
Traditionally used as an adjuvant treatment for the painful component of functional digestive disorders.
Traditionally used in the symptomatic treatment of neurotonic conditions of adults and children, notably in cases of mild disorders of sleep.
a) to improve general condition in mental stress
b) to aid sleep
c) symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints like feeling fullness and flatulence.
a) relief of mild symptoms of mental stress
b) for symptomatic treatment of mild gastrointestinal complaints including bloating and flatulence.
a) to improve general condition in mental stress
Traditional herbal medicinal product for support of mental relaxation, to becalm the bowel.
a)-d) Well-established use for the symptomatic treatment of dyspeptic complaints such as repletion and flatulence.
1) Traditionally in mild states of nervous tension as well as to aid sleep
2) Traditionally as symptomatic treatment of moderate gastrointestinal disorders such as flatulence and feeling of fullness.
In accordance with the HMPC monograph.
A traditional herbal medicinal product used for temporary relief of symptoms of mild anxiety, to aid sleep and for mild digestive complaints, such as bloating and flatulence.
-ima jako dejstvo kod:
– delotvoran kod:
– u narodnoj medicini kod:
– spoljašnja primena kod:
– upotrebljava se kao: antivirotik, antibakterik, antifungal, antiinflamatik, antioksidans, antiprotozoik, antitrombotik, emenagog, spazmolitik, sedativ, pokazuje antitiroidne i kardiovaskularne efekte, ….
Actions: Antiviral, antibacterial, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiprotozoal, antithrombotic, antithyroid, anodyne, cardiovascular, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine, spasmodic, sedative stomachic, uterine tonic.
Doziranje i način primene:
do 2 mL (80 kapi) podeljeno u 2 do 4 doze.
Biljni preparat MATIČNJAK HSS i TM:
pojedinačna doza: 0,5-1 mL, preporučena dnevna doza (PDD): 2 mL.
Oralna (pre obroka,15-30 minuta) i lokalna primena.
Napraviti pauzu posle 4 nedelje neprekidne upotrebe
Po preporukama, preparat postiže najbolje efekte pri upotrebi od 8 do 12 nedelja, duža upotreba je bezbedna uz pauze.
Kontraindikacije: preosetljivost na aktivne supstance, preosetljivost na biljke porodice (genus Melissa, family Lamiaceae).
Kontraindikovano je: upotreba kod mlađih od 12 godina.
Čuvanje: na tamnom, suvom i hladnom mestu do 20˚C, van domašaja dece i izlaganja EM zračenju, u dobro zatvorenoj originalnoj ambalaži.
Rok upotrebe: 5 godina, posle prvog otvaranja 6 meseci. Ako se čuva po preporučenim uslovima, rok trajanja je neograničen.
Pakovanje: 50 mL i 100 mL, standardne farmaceutske braon bočice, 250 mL, 500 mL, 1L i 5 L na zahtev.
Nutritivne informacije, MATIČNJAK HSS i TM:
energetska vrednost u 100 mL: 1500 kJ/ 360 kcal,
u preporučenoj dnevnoj dozi (PDD) 2 mL: 30kJ/ 7,2 kcal,
suve materije (DR) više od 1,1% (Fr. Ph.).
Bez konzervanasa, proteina, masti i ugljenih hidrata.
MATIČNJAK HSS i TM su rukom rađeni proizvodi.
CENOVNIK RSD/ EUR (€)
MATIČNA TINKTURA, MATIČNJAK TM, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sveže biljke (delova sveže biljke), DER 1:2,
50 mL – 600,00 RSD (5 €); 100 mL – 1200,00 RSD (10 €);
Pogledati i ostale podatke na adresi: http://www.biljni-preparati.com/preparati/maticnjak-melissa-officinalis-l/
Podaci ažurirani januara 2019.
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)
Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts & Benefits
Melissa officinalis is the ultimate medicinal plant for emotional detox and has been used for centuries to „restore the joy of life to even the most melancholy“ and alleviate stress and anxiety. The herb is used for nervous agitation, functional gastrointestinal complaints, menstrual cramps, urinary spasms and symptoms of PMS. It is also said to improve memory and mental function. For a good night’s sleep, try Lemon Balm. It has been useful for combatting cold sores, caused by herpes and is even said to prevent baldness.
Melissa officinalis has been used for thousands of years as a calmative that is good for all kinds of nervous problems, including tension headaches, migraines, neuralgia, hysteria, nervous tension, stress, anxiety, excitability and heart palpations. Studies have shown that when combined with Valerian root tincture, it improves sleep patterns and was comparable to the effectiveness of the prescription drug Halcion. It may also be effective in treating Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD), easing such symptoms as inability to listen, fidgeting, inability to sustain attention and shifting from one incomplete task to another. It appears to relax muscle tension without daytime drowsiness.
In the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, it shows great promise, it may even positively affect cognitive abilities, enhance memory and improve mental clarity. This effect may be due to its antioxidant content, which is thought to protect the body from damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation. Another small, but interesting, the study used Lemon balm extract, in aromatherapy, to calm overexcited individuals suffering from dementia. Dementia is an increasing deficiency in thought processing, caused by brain damage, such as by a stroke or diseases like Alzheimer’s disease.
Melissa officinalis is effective in calming the digestive tract. It relieves dyspepsia, colic, gas, upset stomach, indigestion and stomach cramps. The herb has been used to relieve irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), often stopping the spasms and relieving the pain and cramps associated with the disease. And although it is strong enough to ease spasms, it is not so strong as to cause constipation. It is thought that the volatile oils of Lemon balm contain chemicals that actually relax muscles, particularly in the bladder and stomach, thereby relieving cramps, gas, and nausea.
Melissa officinalis was used as an old folk remedy for treating feverish patients. It promotes perspiration and cools the body by breaking a fever. It is especially helpful for treating the aches and fever of colds and flu. It is said to relieve bronchial catarrh and some forms of asthma.
Melissa officinalis is used in Europe for treating thyroid problems and is shown to have thyroid regulating action, which has been known to block the attachment of thyroid cells by antibodies that cause Graves’ disease. This property of the herb along with its anti-viral characteristics has made it useful in the treatment of Chronic fatigue syndrome, or CFS.
Melissa officinalis strong anti-viral properties and volatile oils have been known to destroy viruses in test tubes in as little as three hours, and this quality makes the herb especially helpful in combating cold sores, herpes virus infection. It is also thought to relieve the pain, itching, and sting of an outbreak. Topical use of Melissa officinalis has been proven to speed the healing time of herpes simplex virus sores on the mouth and genitals when applied externally in a cream or salve. At least part of this effect is due to the antiviral properties of caffeic acid and rosemarinic acid. Lemon Balm is an antibacterial and when used externally, it makes a fine poultice that has anti-putrescent effects and has been used as a surgical dressing. It is good for tumors, insect bites, and stings, and it also cleanses sores and wounds on the body.
Ingredients: Melissa officinalis, Structured Water, 96% Alcohol.
Non-Alcohol: Melissa officinalis, Structured Water, and Vegetable Glycerin.
All of our ingredients are Certified Organic, Kosher, or Responsibly Wildcrafted. No genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are involved. All other products that are distributed by us meet our high-quality standards.
Instructions: Use 10-20 drops in juice, water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 2-4 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children.
Contraindications: Melissa officinalis is mild, gentle, and safe for children. It is wise, however, not to take it concurrently with barbiturates for insomnia or anxiety, as it may increase their effects. With regard to the Essential Oil (only) of Melissa officinalis, persons with glaucoma should avoid it, as animal studies show that it may raise the pressure in the eye.
Disclaimer: The information presented herein by Herbal Alchemy is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own healthcare provider.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Balm, balm mint, bee balm, blue balm, Citra, citronellae, citronmelisse, common balm, cure-all, dropsy plant, English balm, folia citronellae, folia melissae citratae, garden balm, gastrovegetalin, hjertensfryd, honey plant, kneipp melisse pflanzensaft, Labiatae/Lamiaceae (family), lemon melissa, lomaherpan, melissa, Melissa officinalis, Melissa officinalis L., melissae, melissae folium, Melisse (German and French), melissenblatt, melissengeist, sweet balm, sweet mary, toronjil (Spanish), valverde boutons de fievre crème.
Mechanism of Action
- Constituents: The known major components of lemon balm are reported to include hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, particularly rosmarinic acid, caffeic acids, chlorogenic acid, and metrilic acid 26,27,5,22,18,28, tannins3,12,29,1,30, flavonoids, including luteolin, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin 3′-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside25,8,20,19,21,16,31,32, monoterpene glycosides33, sesquiterpenes, including ß-caryophyllene and germacrene33, triterpenes34, and volatile oils, including citronellal, citral a (geranial), citral b (neral), methyl citronellate, ocimene, citronellol, geraniol, nerol, ß-caryophyllene, ß-caryophyllene oxide, linalool, and ethric oil35,20,19,36,37,38,39. The volatile oil comprises 0.5-0.1% of the plant by weight, and citronellal, geranial, and neral constitute about 50-70% of this oil.35Eugenylglycoside has been isolated from lemon balm leaves.40 The chemical composition of lemon balm tea yielded 10mg/L of essential oil (74% citral) and large amounts of polyphenol compounds.41 Steam distillates of lemon balm callus cultures yielded dehydroabietane and another diterpene hydrocarbon, with the relative proportion of those two compounds varying considerably during cultivation passage.42
- Antiviral effects: Studies have reported that aqueous extracts of lemon balm exhibit antiviral effects against Newcastle disease virus, Semliki forest virus, influenza virus, myxoviruses, vaccinia, and herpes simplex virus.29,24,1,3,12,13Lemon balm extract and rosmarinic acid have demonstrated antiviral properties against HIV-1.14 Studies conducted to assess the antiviral effects of lemon balm on Herpes simplex virus 1 have suggested that different extracts of the herb (M1, M2, M3, and M4) exhibit different effects on the virus.24 Studies conducted to assess the antiviral effects of lemon balm on Herpes simplex virus 2 suggest that the volatile oil components of lemon balm inhibit replication of HSV-2.43 Lemon balm’s antiviral effects are attributed to the tannin and polyphenol constituents. Tannins are reported to possess antiviral properties29,1,12,3,13 as are rosmarinic, caffeic, and ferulic acids24,1.
- Antibacterial/antifungal effects: The lemon balm constituent rosmarinic acid was reported to impair in vivoactivation of mouse macrophages by heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum, as measured by the decreased capacity of the activated macrophages to undergo the oxidative burst.28 In vitro analyses of the antimicrobial properties of lemon balm suggested that at a concentration of 500microg/mL, the herb completely inhibits the growth of all yeast species including, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Pichia membranifaciens, Dekkera anomala,and Yarrowia lipolytica.23,44 Data from in vitro analyses have suggested that lemon balm may be effective as an antibiotic against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria including, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Actinomyces odontolyticus .45 Lemon balm oils have been reported to demonstrate highest activity against enterica (BA50 range, 0.0044-0.011%).46 Antibacterial activity was reported to be expressed on a multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei.47
- Antiinflammatory effects: The paucity of clinical evidence makes the assessment of the antiinflammatory effect of lemon balm difficult to verify.28,48Rosmarinic acid has been reported to reduce paw edema induced by cobra venom factor in rats and to inhibit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats at doses of 1-100mg/kg by mouth. Rosmarinic acid has been reported not to inhibit t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced paw edema in the rat, indicating selectivity for complement-dependent processes.28
- Antioxidant effects: In vitrodata suggest that lemon balm contains high concentrations of antioxidants (greater than 75mmol/100g).6,2,8,27,5,49 Lemon balm has been reported to demonstrate high phenolics content and antioxidant properties (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM).50 Lemon balm extracts and rosmarinic acid have both been reported to demonstrate antioxidant properties in vitro27,2,5, and rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid have demonstrated significant antioxidant and immune modulating activities28,48,5,4. During linoleic acid autoxidation and its EDTA-mediated oxidation, lemon balm showed antioxidant activity.51 An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that lemon balm oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and one mouse cell line (B16F10). Further antioxidant activity of lemon balm has been reported as evidenced by the reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH).52 Studies have demonstrated that the cytoprotective effect of lemon balm extracts seen in rats was due in part to free-radical scavenging properties.8,4Immunostimulating effects of a lemon balm extract were also demonstrated.53 Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid from lemon balm on porcine pancreatic amylase were reported in vitro.54
- Antiprotozoal effects: Essential oils, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from lemon balm were tested on bloodstream forms of Leishmania majorand Trypanosoma major. These constituents were reported to be about 50- to 80-fold more toxic to T major than were human HL-60 cells. None of the essential oils or terpenes were reported to be more toxic to L major than HL-60.33 Monoterpene and sesquiterpenes may possess antiprotozoal effects (anecdotal).
- Antithrombotic effects: Rosmarinic acid has been reported to demonstrate inhibitory effects on both the classical pathway convertase and the alternative pathway convertase. One study reported that rosmarinic acid inhibited 70% of the immunohemolysis of antibody-coated sheep erythrocytes by guinea pig serum via possible inhibition of the C3 convertase of the classical complement pathway. However, higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid were less effective.28Rosmarinic acid was also reported to inhibit C5 convertase in the classical pathway.48,28
- Antithyroid effects: Studies have shown that freeze-dried extracts of lemon balm were reported to inhibit the binding of bovine TSH to human thyroid plasma membranes and adenylate cyclase. In rat liver microsomes, lemon balm aqueous extract was reported to inhibit the extrathyroidal enzymatic T4-5′-deiodination to both T3- and T4-5′-deiodination.16,15The thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin G (IgG) found in patients with Graves’ disease has been reported to resemble TSH in its ability to bind to the thyroid plasma membrane and to activate the thyroid gland. Freeze-dried extracts of lemon balm were reported to exhibit antithyrotropic activity by forming adducts with TSH that bound weakly, if at all, to the TSH receptor. When IgG was incubated with extracts of lemon balm, a dose-dependent decrease was reported in the TSH-binding inhibitory activity. As a result of this reported decrease, adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated (thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin activity) and thyroid iodine release was enhanced in the McKenzie assay system. Cinnamic acid has been reported to inhibit the binding of TSH to human thyroid membranes.15,16 In euthyroid rats, the administration of freeze-dried extracts of lemon balm was reported to reduce pituitary and serum TSH concentrations.17
- Emmenagogic effects: One study suggested that freeze-dried extracts of lemon balm inhibited binding of 125I hCG to rat testis membranes.18In rats, prolactin serum levels and hypophyseal stores were reported to be reduced by 40mg/100g of a freeze-dried extract of lemon balm.17
- Spasmolytic effects: Due to lack of clinical data, lemon balm has not been recommended for use as a spasmolytic agent.9,10,11Using histamine and acetylcholine as spasmogens in guinea pig ileum, no significant antispasmodic activity resulting from lemon balm extracts were reported.9 Studies on isolated duodenum of rat have reported antispasmodic effects of lemon balm in vitro.55
- Sedative effects: In mice, an aqueous alcoholic extract of lemon balm was reported to produce dose-dependent sedation, inducing sleep and potentiating sub-hypnotic and hypnotic doses of pentobarbital. On the other hand, in the same study the essential oil of lemon balm was reported to have no sedative effect.7With high doses, a peripheral analgesic effect was noted.7 In tests on Wistar strain rats and on laboratory mice, lemon balm dried extract was reported to exert influence on CNS in evoking antiaggressive activity. CNS studies of rat reported sedative, hypnotic, and analgesic effects of lemon balm in vivo.55 An ethanolic extract of lemon balm was tested for affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine site, and moderate activity was reported.56 However, a study of a volatile oil-free hydroalcoholic extract reported sedative activity in mice.
- Cardiovascular effects: One study demonstrated that aqueous extracts of lemon balm provoked a significant reduction in the cardiac rate in isolated rat hearts, while the contractile force remained unchanged. This was reported to be caused by the stimulation of cardiac muscarinic receptors.57
- Insufficient available evidence.
- Herrmann, E. C., Jr. and Kucera, L. S. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). II. Nontannin polyphenol of Melissa officinalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med1967;124(3):869-874. 4290452
- Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I., and Janicsak, G. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med1999;65(6):576-578. 10532875
- Kucera, L. S. and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). I. Tannin of Melissa officinalis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1967;124(3):865-869. 4290277
- Lamaison, J. L., Petitjean-Freytet, C., and Carnat, A. [Medicinal Lamiaceae with antioxidant properties, a potential source of rosmarinic acid]. Pharm Acta Helv1991;66(7):185-188. 1763093
- Triantaphyllou, K., Blekas, G., and Boskou, D. Antioxidative properties of water extracts obtained from herbs of the species Lamiaceae. Int J Food Sci Nutr2001;52(4):313-317. 11474895
- Dragland, S., Senoo, H., Wake, K., Holte, K., and Blomhoff, R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J Nutr2003;133(5):1286-1290. 12730411
- Soulimani, R., Fleurentin, J., Mortier, F., Misslin, R., Derrieu, G., and Pelt, J. M. Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis in the mouse. Planta Med1991;57(2):105-109. 1891490
- Khayyal, M. T., el Ghazaly, M. A., Kenawy, S. A., Seif-el-Nasr, M., Mahran, L. G., Kafafi, Y. A., and Okpanyi, S. N. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung2001;51(7):545-553. 11505785
- Forster, H. B., Niklas, H., and Lutz, S. Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med1980;40(4):309-319. 7220648
- Israel, D. and Youngkin, E. Q. Herbal therapies for perimenopausal and menopausal complaints. Pharmacotherapy1997;17(5):970-984. 9324185
- Kennedy, D. O., Scholey, A. B., Tildesley, N. T., Perry, E. K., and Wesnes, K. A. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). Pharmacol Biochem Behav2002;72(4):953-964. 12062586
- Kucera, L. S., Cohen, R. A., and Herrmann, E. C., Jr. Antiviral activities of extracts of the lemon balm plant. Ann N.Y.Acad Sci 7-30-1965;130(1):474-482. 4285591
- May, G. and Willuhn, G. [Antiviral effect of aqueous plant extracts in tissue culture]. Arzneimittelforschung 1978;28(1):1-7. 204315
- Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biol Pharm Bull1998;21(8):829-833. 9743251
- Auf’mkolk, M., Ingbar, J. C., Kubota, K., Amir, S. M., and Ingbar, S. H. Extracts and auto-oxidized constituents of certain plants inhibit the receptor-binding and the biological activity of Graves’ immunoglobulins. Endocrinology1985;116(5):1687-1693. 2985357
- Auf’mkolk, M., Ingbar, J. C., Amir, S. M., Winterhoff, H., Sourgens, H., Hesch, R. D., and Ingbar, S. H. Inhibition by certain plant extracts of the binding and adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of bovine thyrotropin in human thyroid membranes. Endocrinology1984;115(2):527-534. 6745167
- Sourgens, H., Winterhoff, H., Gumbinger, H. G., and Kemper, F. H. Antihormonal effects of plant extracts. TSH- and prolactin-suppressing properties of Lithospermum officinale and other plants. Planta Med1982;45(2):78-86. 7202226
- Auf’mkolk, M., Kohrle, J., Gumbinger, H., Winterhoff, H., and Hesch, R. D. Antihormonal effects of plant extracts: iodothyronine deiodinase of rat liver is inhibited by extracts and secondary metabolites of plants. Horm Metab Res1984;16(4):188-192. 6724503
- Patora, J., Majda, T., Gora, J., and Klimek, B. Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland. Acta Pol Pharm2003;60(5):395-400. 15005424
- Mrlianova, M., Tekel’ova, D., Felklova, M., Reinohl, V., and Toth, J. The influence of the harvest cut height on the quality of the herbal drugs Melissae folium and Melissae herba. PlantaMed2002;68(2):178-180. 11859476
- Patora, J. and Klimek, B. Flavonoids from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae). Acta Pol Pharm2002;59(2):139-143. 12365606
- Ziakova, A., Brandsteterova, E., and Blahova, E. Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis. J Chromatogr A1-3-2003;983(1-2):271-275. 12568390
- Araujo, C., Sousa, M. J., Ferreira, M. F., and Leao, C. Activity of essential oils from Mediterranean Lamiaceae species against food spoilage yeasts. J Food Prot2003;66(4):625-632. 12696686
- Dimitrova, Z., Dimov, B., Manolova, N., Pancheva, S., Ilieva, D., and Shishkov, S. Antiherpes effect of Melissa officinalis L. extracts. Acta Microbiol Bulg1993;29:65-72. 8390134
- Heitz, A., Carnat, A., Fraisse, D., Carnat, A. P., and Lamaison, J. L. Luteolin 3′-glucuronide, the major flavonoid from Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis. Fitoterapia2000;71(2):201-202. 10727822
- Agata I, Kusakabe H, Hatano T, and et al. Melitric acids A and B, new trimeric caffeic acid derivatives from Melissa officinalis. Chem Pharm Bull1993;41(9):1608-1611.
- Tagashira M and Ohtake Y. New antioxidative 1,3-benzodioxole from Melissa officinalis. Planta Med1988;64(6):555-558.
- Englberger, W., Hadding, U., Etschenberg, E., Graf, E., Leyck, S., Winkelmann, J., and Parnham, M. J. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti- inflammatory activity. Int J Immunopharmacol1988;10(6):729-737. 3198307
- Cohen RA, Kucera LS, and Herrmann EC. Antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract (29600). Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine1964;117:431-434.
- Felklova, M., Natherova, L., and Duskova, K. [Tannin compounds in leaves of Melissa officinalis L., invaded by Septoria melissae Desm]. Cesk Farm1969;18(9):457-460. 5370214
- Mulkens, A. and Kapetanidis, I. [Flavonoids of the leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae)]. Pharm Acta Helv1987;62(1):19-22. 3562477
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- Brieskorn, C. H. and Krause, W. [Further triterpenes from Melissa officinalis L (author’s transl)]. Arch Pharm (Weinheim)1974;307(8):603-612. 4848815
- Tittel G, Wagner H, and Bos R. [Chemical composition of the essential oil from Melissa]. Planta Medica1982;46:91-98.
- Hefendehl, F. W. [Composition of etheric oil of Melissa officinalis L. and secondary changes of oil composition]. Arch Pharm Ber Dtsch Pharm Ges1970;303(4):345-357. 5268207
- Mulkens, A and Kapetanidis, I. Eugenylglucoside, a new natural Phenylpropanoid Heteroside from Melissa officinalis. J Nat Prod1988;51:496-498.
- Mulkens, A, Stephanou, E, and Kapetanidis, I. Heterosides a genines volatiles dans les feuilles de Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae). Pharma Acta Helv1985;60:276-278.
- Sarer, E and Kökdil, G. Constituents of the Essential Oil from Melissa officinalis. Planta Med1991;57:89-90.
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- Carnat, AP, Carnat, A, Fraisse, D, and Lamaison, JL. The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L, subsp officinalis) tea. 1998;72:301-305.
- Koch-Heitzmann, I and Czygan, FC. Über wasserdampfflüchtige Diterpenkohlenwasserstoffe in nicht differenzierten Oberflächenkulturen / Untersuchungen an Kalluskulturen von Melissa officinalis L. 1985;II(40c):13-20.
- Allahverdiyev, A., Duran, N., Ozguven, M., and Koltas, S. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2. Phytomedicine2004;11(7-8):657-661. 15636181
- Larrondo, J. V., Agut, M., and Calvo-Torras, M. A. Antimicrobial activity of essences from labiates. Microbios1995;82(332):171-172. 7630324
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- Friedman, M., Henika, P. R., Levin, C. E., and Mandrell, R. E. Antibacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in apple juice. J Agric Food Chem9-22-2004;52(19):6042-6048. 15366861
- Mimica-Dukic, N., Bozin, B., Sokovic, M., and Simin, N. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil. J Agric Food Chem5-5-2004;52(9):2485-2489. 15113145
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- Dimpfel, W., Pischel, I., and Lehnfeld, R. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers. Eur J Med Res9-29-2004;9(9):423-431. 15546807
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- Soulimani, R., Younos, C., Fleurentin, J., Mortiert, F., Misslin, R., and Derrieux, G. Recherche de l’Activit, biologique de Melissa officinalis L. sur le Systeme nerveux central de la souris in vivo et le Doudenum de Rat in vitro. Plant Med Phytother1993;26:77-85.
- Salah, S. M. and Jager, A. K. Screening of traditionally used Lebanese herbs for neurological activities.J Ethnopharmacol2-10-2005;97(1):145-149. 15652288
- Gazola, R., Machado, D., Ruggiero, C., Singi, G., and Macedo, Alexandre M. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats. Pharmacol Res2004;50(5):477-480. 15458767
X X X X X
Melissa officinalis (Lamiaceae)
Common names: Lemonbalm; Bee Balm; Melissa; Balm
Activities: 368 Chemicals w/Activities: 55 Chemicals: 125
Pesticide, Antibacterial, FLavor, Perfumery, Antiseptic, Fungicide, Antiinflammatory, Sedative, Antioxidant,
Cancer-Preventive, Antiviral, Allergenic, Antitumor, Antispasmodic, Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor, Insectifuge, Nematicide, Antimutagenic, Candidicide, Antiherpetic, Chemopreventive, Antiradicular, Antifeedant, Antiedemic, Irritant, Insecticide, Anticariogenic, Cytotoxic, Analgesic, Antistaphylococcic, Anticancer, Antileukemic, Antitumor (Colon), Antihepatotoxic, Trichomonicide, Antiperoxidant, Apoptotic, Calcium-Antagonist, Antiulcer, AntiHIV, Apoptotic, Calcium-Antagonist, Termiticide, Herbicide, Motor-Depressant, Expectorant, Choleretic, Antiprostaglandin, Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor, Antihistaminic, Diuretic, Antitumor (Skin), COX-2-Inhibitor, Antiaggregant, Anesthetic, Immunostimulant, Myorelaxant, Cardioprotective, Antitumor (Breast), Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor, … ukupno 368 istraženih dejstava.
Internat. J. Oriental Med. 15(4): 199, 1990+
Aloe Research Council – Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.
Prod. Res., 22:141, 1986.
Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Kauderer, B., Zamith, H., Paumgartten, F.J.R., and Speit, G. Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of B-Myrcene in Mammalian Cells In Vitro. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 18: 28-34, 1991.
Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.
Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC
Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.
Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
Phytotherapy Research, 4: 93.
Folium Melissae consists of the dried leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, Labiatae) (1, 2).
Calamintha officinalis Moench. (3), Melissa graveolens Host, Thymus melissa E.H.L. Krause (4). Lamiaceae is also referred to as Labiatae.
Selected vernacular names
Alahana, appiastro, badarendjabouya, badranjbuyeh, balm, balm mint, bee balm, blue balm, cedronella, citromfülevél, citronelle, citrounado, citrounela, citrounelo, common balm, cure-all, dropsy plant, erva-cidreira-miuda-de-folha, folia citronellae, franjmeshk, garden-balm, Herzkraut, hhashyshat ennahhl, honey plant, lemon balm, limiera, limouna, limounneta, mallisa, melissa, Melisse, Melissenblätter, Melissenkraut, melisso, melliss, ponciarada, pouncinado, sidrunmeliss, sweet balm, toronjil, toronjil-cidrado, touroudjan, turungan, Zitronenkraut, Zitronenmelisse (4–8).
Indigenous to western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean region, and is cultivated in central, eastern and western Europe, and the United States of America (4, 7, 8).
An odorous perennial herb, 0.3-0.9 m high, usually with several stems, lemonscented on bruising. Stems obtusely quadrangular, furrowed pubescent. Leaves 2-9 cm long and 1-5 cm wide, ovate to obovate-oval, base cuneate truncate or cordate at the base, densely pilose on both surfaces, petiole 0.2-3.5 cm long. Corolla white or pinkish; infundibuliform tube 8-12 mm long; stamens inserted deep in the tube; bracteoles oval-oblong, about 1.5 cm long, pubescent; calyx 5-9 mm long, pubescent outside, pubescent inside (with very short hairs), densely pilose in the middle (4, 8, 9).
Plant material of interest: dried leaves
Leaves oval, cordate, up to about 8 cm long and 5 cm wide, with more or less long petioles; lamina thin, lower surface has conspicuous, raised, reticulate venation; margins roughly dentate or crenate; upper surface bright green, lower surface lighter in colour (1).
Odour: aromatic, lemon-like; taste: aromatic, lemon-like (1).
Dorsoventral epidermal cells with sinuous walls and diacytic stomata on lower surface only; very short, conical, unicellular covering trichomes with a finely striated cuticle occur abundantly, especially over the veins on the lower surface; also uniseriate, multicellular (2-5 cells) covering trichomes, wide at the base and narrowing rapidly toward the tip, with slightly thickened, warty walls; secretory trichomes also very abundant, some small with unicellular stalk and unicellular or bicellular head, others large, of laminaceous type, with unicellular stalk and spherical to ovoid head composed of 8 cells (5).
Powdered plant material
Greenish. Fragments of the leaf epidermis with sinuous walls; short, conical, unicellular covering trichomes with a finely striated cuticle; uniseriate, multicellular covering trichomes; 8-celled secretory trichomes of laminaceous type, others with unicellular to tricellular stalks and unicellular or, more rarely, bicellular heads; diacytic stomata, on the lower surface only (1).
General identity tests
Macroscopic and microscopic examinations, and thin-layer chromatography for rosmarinic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids (1).
Tests for specific microorganisms and microbial contamination limits are as described in the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (10).
Foreign organic matter
Not more than 2% total foreign matter and not more than 10% of stem fragments with a diameter greater than 1 mm (1).
Not more than 12% (1).
Loss on drying
Not more than 10% (1).
The recommended maximum limit of aldrin and dieldrin is not more than 0.05 mg/kg (11). For other pesticides, see the European pharmacopoeia (11), and the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (10) and pesticide residues (12).
For maximum limits and analysis of heavy metals, consult the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (10).
Where applicable, consult the WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (10) for the analysis of radioactive isotopes.
Other purity tests
Chemical, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash, water-soluble extractive and alcohol-soluble extractive tests to be established in accordance with national requirements.
Contains not less than 4.0% total hydroxycinnamic acids calculated as rosmarinic acid (1). Quantitative analysis is performed by spectrophotometry at 505 nm (1). Essential oil analysis is carried out according to the method described in the European pharmacopoeia (1).
Major chemical constituents
The major characteristic constituents are the hydroxycinnamic acids (rosmarinic [up to 6%], p-coumaric, caffeic and chlorogenic acids), and an essential oil (0.02-0.37%) composed of more than 40% monoterpenes and more than 35% sesquiterpenes. The most significant terpenoid components are citral (a mixture of the isomers neral and geranial), citronellal, geraniol, nerol, linalool, farnesyl acetate, humulene (α-caryophyllene), β-caryophyllene and eremophilene. Other constituents include flavonoids, tannins and acidic triterpenes (e.g. ursolic and oleanolic acids) (4, 6, 7, 13–15). The structures of the major compound, rosmarinic acid, and terpenoid components are presented below.
Uses supported by clinical data
Externally, for symptomatic treatment of herpes labialis (16–18).
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine
Orally as a carminative for gastrointestinal disorders, and as a sedative for treatment of nervous disturbances of sleep (5, 15).
Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data
Treatment of amenorrhoea, asthma, bee stings, coughs, dizziness, dysmenorrhoea, migraine headaches, tachycardia, toothache, tracheobronchitis and urinary incontinence (6, 19).
Aqueous extracts of Folium Melissae inhibited the replication in vitro of herpes simplex virus type 2, influenza virus A2 (Mannheim 57) and vaccinia virus at a concentration of 10% (20). A dried aqueous extract of the leaves inhibited the replication of herpes simplex viruses in vitro at a concentration of 200 µg/ml (18). A condensed tannin isolated from an aqueous extract of the leaves inhibited haemagglutination induced by Newcastle disease virus or mumps virus; protected eggs and chick cell cultures from infection by Newcastle disease virus; and prevented haemagglutination by Newcastle disease, mumps and parainfluenza viruses 1, 2 and 3, but not by influenza viruses A and B (21). A tannin-free polyphenol fraction of an aqueous extract of the leaves was active against herpes simplex and vaccinia viruses in egg and cell culture systems (22). Aqueous extracts of the leaves have also been reported to have activity against Semliki Forest virus, influenza viruses and myxoviruses in vitro (23, 24).
An ethanol extract of the leaves inhibited histamine- and barium-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum in vitro (200 µg/ml), while an aqueous extract was inactive (25). A 30% ethanol extract did not inhibit acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum in vitro at concentrations up to 10 µl/ml (26). The essential oil inhibited contractions in guinea-pig ileum, rat duodenum and vas deferens, and rabbit jejunum and aorta in vitro (27, 28). The essential oil also exhibited smooth muscle relaxant activity in guinea-pig tracheal muscle (ED50 22 µg/ml) and in an electrically stimulated ileum myenteric plexus/longitudinal muscle preparation (ED50 7.8 µg/ml) (29).
Inhalation of the essential oil had a weak tranquillizing effect in mice (30).
An open multicentre study of 115 patients with herpes simplex infections of the skin and transitional mucosa demonstrated that external applications of a 1% lyophilized aqueous extract of Folium Melissae in a cream base reduced the healing time of herpetic lesions from 10-14 days to 6-8 days (18). Treatment with the cream also prolonged the recidivation-free intervals, as compared with other topical virustatic preparations containing idoxuridine and tromantidine hydrochloride (16, 18). A subsequent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 116 patients with herpes simplex infections of the skin and transitional mucosa demonstrated a significant reduction in the size of herpetic lesions within 5 days in patients treated with the same cream (P = 0.01), as compared with placebo treatment (17, 18).
External use: none. Internal use: see Precautions.
No information available.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
A tincture of Folium Melissae was not mutagenic in vitro (31) and alcohol extracts had antimutagenic activity in vitro (32).
Pregnancy: teratogenic effects
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally during pregnancy without medical supervision.
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally during pregnancy without medical supervision.
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally during lactation without medical supervision.
Internal use: no information available. Therefore, Folium Melissae should not be administered internally to children without medical supervision.
No information available on general precautions or precautions concerning drug interactions; or drug and laboratory test interactions; pregnancy.
No information available.
Comminuted crude drug; powder, tea bags, dried and fluidextracts for infusions and other galenical preparations (7, 14, 15). Store in a tightly closed container, protected from light (1). Do not store in plastic containers (7).
(Unless otherwise indicated)
Daily dosage for oral administration (for gastrointestinal disorders and as a sedative for nervous disturbances of sleep).
Infusion: 1.5-4.5 g crude drug per cup several times daily as needed (15); 45% alcohol extract (1:1): 2-4 ml three times daily (5); tincture (1:5 in 45% alcohol): 2-6 ml three times daily (14).
Daily dosage for topical application (for herpes labialis).
Cream containing 1% of a lyophilized aqueous extract applied 2-4 times daily from the appearance of prodromal signs to a few days after the healing of the lesions, for a maximum of 14 days (14, 18).
1. European pharmacopoeia, 3rd ed., Suppl. 2000. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1999.
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4. Hänsel R et al., eds. Hagers Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis. Bd. 6: Drogen P-Z, 5th ed. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1994.
5. British herbal pharmacopoeia. London, British Herbal Medicine Association, 1996.
6. Farnsworth NR, ed. NAPRALERT database. Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, February 9, 1998 production (an online database available directly through the University of Illinois at Chicago or through the Scientific and Technical Network [STN] of Chemical Abstracts Services).
7. Bisset NG. Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1994.
8. Youngken HW. Textbook of pharmacognosy, 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Blakiston, 1950.
9. Backer CA, Backhuisen van den Brink RC, eds. Flora of Java. Vol. 2. Noordhof, NVP, 1965.
10. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.
11. European pharmacopoeia, 3rd ed. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1996.
12. Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues, 2nd rev. ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1997 (document WHO/FSF/FOS/97.7).
13. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Paris, Lavoisier, 1995.
14. ESCOP monographs on the medicinal use of plant drugs. Fascicule 1. Elburg, European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy, 1996.
15. Blumenthal M et al., eds. The complete German Commission E monographs. Austin, TX, American Botanical Council, 1998.
16. Wölbling RH, Milbradt R. Klinik und Therapie des Herpes simplex. Der Allgemeinarzt. Vorstellung eines neuen phytotherapeutischen Wirkstoffes. Therapiewoche, 1984, 34:1193-1200.
17. Vogt HJ et al. Melissenextrakt bei Herpes simplex. Allgemeinarzt, 1991, 13:832-841.
18. Wölbling RH, Leonhardt K. Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis. Phytomedicine, 1994, 1:25-31.
19. Boulos L. Medicinal plants of North Africa. Algonac, MI, Reference Publications Inc., 1983.
20. May G, Willuhn G. Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 1978, 28:1-7.
21. Kucera LS, Herrmann EC. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). II. Tannin of Melissa officinalis. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1967, 124:865-869.
22. Herrmann EC, Kucera LS. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). II. Nontannin polyphenol of Melissa officinalis. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1967, 124:869-874.
23. Van den Berghe DA et al. Present status and prospects of plant products as antiviral agents. In: Vlietinck AJ, Dommisse RA, eds. Advances in medicinal plant research. Stuttgart, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985:47-99.
24. Konig B, Dustmann JH. The caffeoylics as a new family of natural compounds. Naturwissenschaften, 1985, 72:659-661.
25. Itokawa H et al. Studies on the constituents of crude drugs having inhibitory activity against contraction of the ileum caused by histamine or barium chloride. I. Screening test for the activity of commercially available crude drugs and the related plant materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 1983, 37:223-228.
26. Forster HB, Niklas H, Lutz S. Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Medica, 1980, 40:309-312.
27. Wagner H, Sprinkmeyer L. Über die pharmakologische Wirkung von Melissengeist. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung, 1973, 113:1159-1166.
28. Debelmas AM, Rochat J. Étude pharmacologique des huiles essentielles. Activité antispasmodique etudiée sur une cinquantaine d’échantillons differents. Plantes médicinales et Phytothérapie, 1967, 1:23-27.
29. Reiter M, Brandt W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea-pig. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 1985, 35:408-414.
30. Buchbauer G et al. Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects upon inhalation. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1993, 82:660-664.
31. Schimmer O et al. An evaluation of 55 commercial plant extracts in the Ames mutagenicity test. Pharmazie, 1994, 49:448-451.
32. Saigusa S et al. Antimutagenic activity of herbal extracts. II. Mechanism and DNArepair enhancement. Mutation Research, 1982, 182:375.
Lemon Balm (Melissae folium)
Published December 5, 1984; Revised March 13, 1990., List of German Commission E Monographs (Phytotherapy)
Bundesanzeiger Nr. 172 a vom 14.9.1988, Monographie BGA/BfArM (Kommission D)
Melissa officinalis ex herba
Bundesanzeiger Nr. 199 a vom 20.10.1989, Monographie BGA/BfArM (Kommission D
Melissae folium (Melissenblätter).
Erscheinungsdatum Bundesanzeiger: 5.12.1984., Heftnummer: 228., ATC-Code: N05CO., Monographie BGA/BfArM (Kommission E)