Majčina dušica (Thymus serpyllum L.)
BILJNI PREPARATI MAJČINE DUŠICE:
MATIČNA TINKTURA, MAJČINA DUŠICA TM
Thymi herbae recentis extractum ethanolicum liquidum
namenjen respiratornom traktu
Lekovitost majčine dušice
Lekoviti sastojci nalaze se jedino i isključivo u listu i cvetu majčine dušice.
Majčina dušica je jak antiseptik za unutrašnje organe, organe za disanje i urogenitalne organe.
Biljka daje snagu koja stimuliše psihičke i fizičke funkcije, a deluje kod oboljenja kao što su:
– razne neuroze
– depresije, neurastenije, alkoholizam – za njih je majčina dušica pravi lek. U narodnoj medicini preporučuje se u lečenju alkoholizma jer posle uzimanja čaja dolazi do povraćanja, a osoba koja pije gubi volju za daljim uživanjem alkohola
– zatim se koristi kod slabosti i seksualnih smetnji jer pojačava, stimuliše seksualne funkcije
– kod plućnih oboljenja kao što su astma, bronhitis, emfizem, tuberkuloza uzima se čaj ili sirup od majčine dušice jer deluje višenamenski: kao ekspektorans (rastvara sluz, katar) koji olakšava iskašljavanje, kao antiseptik koji umiruje jak kašalj, kao antiseptik koji sprečava širenje infekcije tj deluje antiinflamatorno
– za ženske bolesti se koristi kao emenagog (podstiče i reguliše menstruaciju), antiseptik (za infekcije materice)
– koristi se i za lečenje migrene, bolesti bešike, bubrega, želuca (grčevi), anemije, angine, difterije, padavice, kijavice, nesanice, reume.
Majčinu dušicu ne bi smele uzimati osobe sa komplikacijama žuči, sa akutnim čirom na želucu, osobe slabog želuca i sa komplikacijama na jetri.
BILJNI PREPARATI MAJČINE DUŠICE: MATIČNA TINKTURA MAJČINA DUŠICA TM
Thymi herbae recentis extractum ethanolicum liquidum
ATC: R05X- ostali (biljni) preparati za kašalj i prehladu,
– antimikrobik, antispazmodik.
U skladu sa Eu. Ph. 8 01.07.2015. monografijom: 865 Thymi herba, 1891 Serpylli herba
EMEA 12.11.2013.: Assessment report on Thymus serpyllum L., herba
Fr. Ph. ANSM Thymus serpyllum ad praeparationes homoeopathicas
Biljni preparat u tečnom obliku (nerazblažen ili razblažen) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.
a) Thymus serpyllum L., summitas (Wild thyme fresh areal part).
Biljni preparati u tečnom obliku (nerazblaženi ili razblaženi) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.
Sastav: a) tečni ekstrat (DER 1:2), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% (v/v).
Thymus serpyllum L., sadrži 48 istraženih hemijskih jedinjenja koja ispoljavaju 379 dejstava.
a) minimalno 0,015% m/m, ukupnih fenola (phenols), izraženih kao timol (thymol) (MF: C10H14O, MW: 150,21756 g/mol−1),
b) u većoj koncentraciji sadrži kofeinsku, oleanolinsku, urzolinsku i rozmarinsku kiselina, β-bisabolen,
c) više od svih biljaka sadrži timol i metil timol, metil-karvakrol, P-Cimen.
Indikacije: biljni preparati su namenjeni poboljšanju opšteg stanja organizma kroz razna naučno dokazana dejstva.
Upotreba kod urogenitalnih, gastrointestinalnih, respiratornih, kožnih, kardiovaskularnih i neuroloških tegoba.
– ima jako dejstvo kod: bronhitisa, kašlja, bolova u grlu, katara gornjih respiratornih puteva, …
– delotvoran kod: Ca. (kolona, hipofize, slezine, želuca, uterusa), grčeva, mikoza, gljivičnih i ostalih infekcija, HTA, zubobolje,
– u narodnoj medicini kod: kod apcesa, adenopatije, angine, artroza, anoreksije, astme, krvarenja, dijareje, dismenoreje, dispepsije, enteritisa, epigastritisa, epilepsije, gripa, fraktura, hloroze, holecistitisa, kolere, nazeba, kolika, katara, konvulzija, gasova, gastritisa, migrena, glavobolje, histerije, leukoreje, nefritisa, neurastenije, neuroza, pertusisa, skrofula, bolova u stomaku, edema i otoka, ulceracija, uteritisa, vertiga, vomitusa, zastoja tečnosti, upale grla, mamurluka, prehlade, loše probave, nadimanja i grčeva, prehlade, katara, velikog kašlja, bolova u vratu, paraliza, uganuća, hemoptizije, reumatizma, grčeva mišića, nervne napetosti, stresa, zaboravnosti, tegoba sa kožom, GI poremećaja, gubitka apetita, zubobolje, spazama, Tu.,
– spoljašnja primena kod: akni i ekcema, parazita, rana, svraba, dermatitisa, …
– upotrebljava se kao: jak antiseptik, dekongestant, analgetik, adstringent, antispazmodik, antibiotik, antireumatik, antitusik, antihipertonik, baktericid, cikatrizant, karminativ, depurativ, diuretik, fungicid, hemostatik, ekspektorant,emenagog, insekticid, kardiotonik, respiratonik, sedativ, sekretolitik, stomahik, stimulant, tireotropik, tonik, vermifug, vulnerar, ektoparaziticid.
Monografija nemačke E komisije (Commission E Monographs), terapijski vodič za biljne lekove, preporučuje Thymus serpyllum za katar respiratornog trakta.
Doziranje i način primene:
2 mL (80 kapi) podeljeno u 2 do 4 doze.
Biljni preparat MAJČINA DUŠICA HSS i TM:
pojedinačna doza: 0,5-1 mL,
preporučena dnevna doza (PDD): 2 mL.
Oralna (15 minuta pre obroka) i lokalna primena.
Upotreba na koži: aplicirati na obolelo mesto u tankom sloju ili obliku impregniranog zavoja.
Napraviti pauzu posle 4 nedelje neprekidne upotrebe.
Po preporukama, preparat postiže najbolje efekte pri upotrebi od 8 do 12 nedelja, duža upotreba je bezbedna uz pauze.
Kontraindikacije: preosetljivost na aktivne supstance, preosetljivost na biljke porodice (genus Thymus, family Lamiaceae).
Čuvanje: na tamnom, suvom i hladnom mestu do 20˚C, van domašaja dece i izlaganja EM zračenju, u dobro zatvorenoj originalnoj ambalaži.
Rok upotrebe: 5 godina, posle prvog otvaranja 6 meseci.
Pakovanje: 50 mL i 100 mL (1 3/4 fl oz i 3 1/2 fl oz), standardne farmaceutske braon bočice; 250 mL, 500 mL, 1L i 5 L na zahtev.
MAJČINA DUŠICA TM:
energetska vrednost u 100 mL: 1504 kJ/ 360 kcal,
u preporučenoj dnevnoj dozi (PDD) 2 mL: 30 kJ/ 7,17 kcal,
suve materije (DR) više od 1,4% (GHP).
Bez konzervanasa, proteina, masti i ugljenih hidrata. MAJČINA DUŠICA TM je rukom rađen proizvod.
CENOVNIK MATIČNA TINKTURA MAJČINA DUŠICA TM MATERINKA.
50 mL – 600,00 RSD (5 evra), 100 mL – 1200,00 RSD (10 evra).
Upotreba majčine dušice Thymus serpyllum (Lamiaceae) sa referencama
Thymus serpyllum (Lamiaceae) sinonimi: Serpol; Creeping Thyme; Thyme,Wild; Yabani Kekik
|antiseptik||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|adstrigent||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|karminativ||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|cordial||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|depurativ||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|emenagog||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|ekspektorant||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|pluća||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|nervin||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|pertusis||Font Query, P. 1979. Plantas Medicinales el Dioscorides Renovado. Editorial Labor, S.A. Barcelona. 5th Ed.|
|sedativ||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|spazam||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|spazam||Uphof, J.C. Th. 1968. Dictionary of economic plants. 2nd ed. Verlag von J. Cramer.|
|stomahik||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|tonik||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
|Tu||Hartwell, J.L. 1967-71. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.|
|vermifug||Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.|
Data by Dr. Dzejms A. Djuk (Dr. James A. Duke)
Tinktura majkine dušice 1:5 Florida herbal pharmacy
Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum)
Wild Thyme Herb Tincture-Liquid Herbal Extract & Benefits
Thymus serpyllum is a powerful antiseptic and expectorant, and some research has found that it is also an excellent pain-relieving herb. It is an incredibly potent yet simple herbal remedy that affects multiple systems. Used for thousands of years to loosen phlegm in chest infections and ease bronchitis, sore throats, coughs, croup, whooping cough, acute bronchitis, laryngitis, and asthma. The herbal tincture of Wild Thyme is often used to support the gastrointestinal system and is particularly helpful for getting rid of gas in the body, or flatulence, as well as easing indigestion, gastritis, dyspepsia and stomach cramps. The fungus, Candida albicans is s common cause of mouth, gastrointestinal and vaginal yeast infections, and Thymus serpyllum has been found to help to combat the issue. After testing the effects of Myrrh, Wild Thyme, and Marigold, or Calendula tinctures on the bacteria that causes certain types of acne, the herb was found to be much more effective than some other preparations, as a remedy. Thymus serpyllum is thought to calm the nervous system, induce sleep, and helps to increase energy. It acts as a memory booster and an antidepressant. It is believed to help with concentration and focus.
Thymus serpyllum acts as a digestive that supports a healthy gastrointestinal system. It is thought to relax the smooth muscle of the stomach, relieving all kinds of stomach upsets. It is commonly used by herbalists for entrapped gas, abdominal and intestinal aches, and even spasmodic cholera. This action may be due to lessening spasms in the intestines. This can be helpful as for conditions that may rob you of your appetite for good food that the body needs. The tincture of Wild Thyme may also help to inhibit bacterial growth within and outside of the body. It kills bacteria and keeps them away from the organs, which can be particularly beneficial in curing bacterial infections like B-colitis, renal colic, infections of the urethra and genitals.
One of the more important uses of Thymus serpyllum that is still being used and studied today is for heart troubles. With heart problems growing at an alarming rate, it is important to keep the valves functioning properly. With its antispasmodic properties, it helps to relax the arteries and veins and thereby reduces blood pressure and stress on the heart. It has been said to strengthen the cardiac muscles and tone the heart. Basically, it is good for every part of a healthy heart.
Wild Thyme is thought to be an excellent herb to boost the immune system. Getting all the vitamins your body needs every day can be difficult. Luckily, Wild Thyme tinctures are packed with vitamin C and is also a very good source of vitamin A, as well as copper, iron, and manganese. So, if you feel a cold coming on, this may be just the herb to help get you back in shape. It has also been used to treat mold, an air pollutant that can lurk in your home. And it has shown good results against clinical strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, and Escherichia genus of bacteria.
Women should be interested in this herbal remedy for the relief it may offer for obstructed and painful menstruation. This herb has been used forever for abdominal pain, fatigue, backache, headaches, nausea, depression and low blood pressure, often associated with menstruation. It may also help to delay menopause, thereby keeping women happy, healthy and fertile. The herb is believed to have the action of stimulating certain hormones, like estrogen. Studies are being conducted on the herb for its protective effect against colon and breast cancer, as it has been shown to induce cell death in cancer cells.
Used externally, it is helpful dental decay, plaque, thrush, tonsillitis, halitosis, deep wounds, bruises and when used as an ingredient in a bath, helps to alleviate nervous exhaustion.
Ingredients: Thymus serpyllum, Structured Water, 96% Alcohol.
Non-Alcohol: Thymus serpyllum, Structured Water, and Vegetable Glycerin.
Instructions: Use 10-20 drops in juice, water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children.
Contraindications: Pregnant and nursing women should not use Thymus serpyllum, as it is a uterine stimulant. Habitual and excessive usage (many times the recommended dosage) is not recommended, as it may cause gastric irritation, headache, dizziness, convulsions, and coma. Thymus serpyllum should not be taken by people with heart problems nor by those who suffer from seizure disorders or epilepsy. Those who are allergic to members of the mint family (thyme, basil, sage, marjoram, etc.), should avoid this herb.
Disclaimer: The information presented herein by Herbal Alchemy is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own healthcare provider.
Herba Thymi is the dried leaves and flowering tops of Thymus vulgaris L. or of Thymus zygis L. (Lamiaceae) (1, 2).
Lamiaceae are also known as Labiatae.
Selected vernacular names
Common thyme, farigola, garden thyme, herba timi, herba thymi, mother of thyme, red thyme, rubbed thyme, ten, thick leaf thyme, thym, Thymian, thyme, time, timi, tomillo, za’ater (1, 3–7).
An aromatic perennial sub-shrub, 20–30 cm in height, with ascending, quadrangular, greyish brown to purplish brown lignified and twisted stems bearing oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate greyish green leaves that are pubescent on the lower surface. The flowers have a pubescent calyx and a bilobate, pinkish or whitish, corolla and are borne in verticillasters. The fruit consists of 4 brown ovoid nutlets (5, 8, 9).
Plant material of interest: dried leaves and flowering tops
Thymus vulgaris Leaf 4–12 mm long and up to 3mm wide; it is sessile or has a very short petiole. The lamina is tough, entire, lanceolate to ovate, covered on both surfaces by a grey to greenish grey indumentum; the edges are markedly rolled up towards the abaxial surface. The midrib is depressed on the adaxial surface and is very prominent on the abaxial surface. The calyx is green, often with violet spots, and is tubular; at the end are 2 lips of which the upper is bent back and has 3 lobes on its end; the lower is longer and has 2 hairy teeth. After flowering, the calyx tube is closed by a crown of long, stiff hairs. The corolla, about twice as long as the calyx, is usually brownish in the dry state and is slightly bilabiate (1).
Thymus zygis Leaf 1.7–6.5 mm long and 0.4–1.2 mm wide; it is acicular to linear-lanceolate and the edges are markedly rolled toward the abaxial surface. Both surfaces of the lamina are green to greenish grey and the midrib is sometimes violet; the edges, in particular at the base, have long, white hairs. The dried flowers are very similar to those of Thymus vulgaris (1).
Organoleptic properties Odour and taste aromatic (1–3, 5).
Microscopic characteristics In leaf upper epidermis, cells tangentially elongated in transverse section with a thick cuticle and few stomata, somewhat polygonal in surface section with beaded vertical walls and striated cuticle, the stoma being at a right angle to the 2 parallel neighbouring cells. Numerous unicellular, non-glandular hairs up to 30µm in length with papillose wall and apical cell, straight, or pointed, curved, or hooked. Numerous glandular hairs of two kinds, one with a short stalk embedded in the epidermal layer and a unicellular head, the other with an 8- to 12-celled head and no stalk. Palisade parenchyma of 2 layers of columnar cells containing many chloroplastids; occasionally an interrupted third layer is present. Spongy parenchyma of about 6 layers of irregular-shaped chlorenchyma cells and intercellular air-spaces (5).
Powdered plant material Grey-green to greenish brown powder; leaf fragments, epidermal cells prolonged into unicellular pointed, papillose trichomes, 60µm long; trichomes of the lower surface uniseriate, 2–3 celled, sharp pointed, up to 300µm in diameter, numerous labiate trichomes with 8–12 secretory cells up to 80µm in diameter; broadly elliptical caryophyllaceous stomata. Six- to 8-celled uniseriate trichomes from the calyx up to 400µm long; pollen grains spherical; pericyclic fibres of the stem (1–3).
Geographical distribution Indigenous to southern Europe. It is a pan-European species that is cultivated in Europe, the United States of America and other parts of the world (2, 3, 5, 10).
General identity tests Macroscopic and microscopic examinations (1, 5), and chemical and thinlayer chromatography tests for the characteristic volatile oil constituent, thymol .
Microbiology The test for Salmonella spp. in Herba Thymi products should be negative. The maximum acceptable limits of other microorganisms are as follows (11–13). For preparation of infusion: aerobic bacteria-not more than 107/g; fungi-not more than 105/g; Escherichia coli-not more than 102/g. Preparations for oral use: aerobic bacteria-not more than 105/ml; fungi-not more than 104/ml; enterobacteria and certain Gram-negative bacteria-not more than 103/ml; Escherichia coli-0/ml.
Foreign organic matter Not more than 10% of stem having a diameter up to 1mm. Leaves with long trichomes at their base and with weakly pubescent other parts not allowed (1). The leaves and flowering tops of Origanum creticum or O. dictamnus are considered adulterants (3, 5). Other foreign organic matter, not more than 2% (2).
Total ash Not more than 15% (1).
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 2.0% (1).
Moisture Not more than 10% (1).
Pesticide residues To be established in accordance with national requirements. Normally, the maximum residue limit of aldrin and dieldrin in Herba Thymi is not more than 0.05 mg/kg (13). For other pesticides, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (11) and guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues (14).
Heavy metals Recommended lead and cadmium levels are not more than 10 and 0.3mg/kg, respectively, in the final dosage form of the plant material (11).
Radioactive residues For analysis of strontium-90, iodine-131, caesium-134, caesium-137, and plutonium-239, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plants (11).
Other purity tests Chemical, alcohol-soluble extractive, and water-soluble extractive tests to be established in accordance with national requirements.
Chemical assays Herba Thymi contains not less than 1.0% volatile oil (2, 3), and not less than 0.5% phenols. Volatile oil is quantitatively determined by water/steam distillation (1), and the percentage content of phenols expressed as thymol is determined by spectrophotometric analysis (1). Thin-layer chromatographic analysis is used for thymol, carvacrol, and linalool (1, 15).
Major chemical constituents Herba Thymi contains about 2.5% but not less than 1.0% of volatile oil. The composition of the volatile oil fluctuates depending on the chemotype under consideration. The principal components of Herba Thymi are thymol  and carvacrol  (up to 64% of oil), along with linalool, p-cymol, cymene, thymene, α-pinene, apigenin, luteolin, and 6-hydroxyluteolin glycosides, as well as di-, tri- and tetramethoxylated flavones, all substituted in the 6- position (for example 5,4′-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone, 5,4′-dihydroxy- 6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone and its 8-methoxylated derivative 5,6,4′-trihydroxy- 7,8,3′-trimethoxyflavone) (1, 3–6, 9).
Dosage forms Dried herb for infusion, extract, and tincture (1).
Uses supported by clinical data None.
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine Thyme extract has been used orally to treat dyspepsia and other gastrointestinal disturbances; coughs due to colds, bronchitis and pertussis; and laryngitis and tonsillitis (as a gargle). Topical applications of thyme extract have been used in the treatment of minor wounds, the common cold, disorders of the oral cavity, and as an antibacterial agent in oral hygiene (3, 5, 8, 15, 16). Both the essential oil and thymol are ingredients of a number of proprietary drugs including antiseptic and healing ointments, syrups for the treatment of respiratory disorders, and preparations for inhalation. Another species in the genus, T. serpyllum L., is used for the same indications (8).
Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data As an emmenagogue, sedative, antiseptic, antipyretic, to control menstruation and cramps, and in the treatment of dermatitis (7).
Spasmolytic and antitussive activities The spasmolytic and antitussive activity of thyme has been most often attributed to the phenolic constituents thymol and carvacrol, which make up a large percentage of the volatile oil (17). Although these compounds have been shown to prevent contractions induced in the ileum and the trachea of the guinea-pig, by histamine, acetylcholine and other reagents, the concentration of phenolics in aqueous preparations of the drug is insufficient to account for this activity (18, 19). Experimental evidence suggests that the in vitro spasmolytic activity of thyme preparations is due to the presence of polymethoxyflavones (10). In vitro studies have shown that flavones and thyme extracts inhibit responses to agonists of specific receptors such as acetylcholine, histamine and L-norepinephrine, as well as agents whose actions do not require specific receptors, such as barium chloride (10). The flavones of thyme were found to act as noncompetitive and non-specific antagonists (10); they were also shown to be Ca2+ antagonists and musculotropic agents that act directly on smooth muscle (10).
Expectorant and secretomotor activities Experimental evidence suggests that thyme oil has secretomotoric activity (20). This activity has been associated with a saponin extract from T. vulgaris (21). Stimulation of ciliary movements in the pharynx mucosa of frogs treated with diluted solutions of thyme oil, thymol or carvacrol has also been reported (22). Furthermore, an increase in mucus secretion of the bronchi after treatment with thyme extracts has been observed (23).
Antifungal and antibacterial activities In vitro studies have shown that both thyme essential oil and thymol have antifungal activity against a number of fungi, includingCryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus, Saprolegnia, and Zygorhynchus species (24–27). Both the essential oil and thymol had antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and a number of other bacterial species (28, 29). As an antibiotic, thymol is 25 times as effective as phenol, but less toxic (30).
Contraindications Pregnancy and lactation (See Precautions, below).
Warnings No information available.
General Patients with a known sensitivity to plants in the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) should contact their physician before using thyme preparations. Patients sensitive to birch pollen or celery may have a cross-sensitivity to thyme (31).
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility Thyme essential oil did not have any mutagenic activity in the Bacillus subtilis rec-assay or the Salmonella/microsome reversion assay (32, 33). Recent investigations suggest that thyme extracts are antimutagenic (34) and that luteolin, a constituent of thyme, is a strong antimutagen against the dietary carcinogen Trp-P-2 (35).
Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects The safety of Herba Thymi preparations during pregnancy or lactation has not been established. As a precautionary measure, the drug should not be used during pregnancy or lactation except on medical advice. However, widespread use of Herba Thymi has not resulted in any safety concerns.
Nursing mothers See Pregnancy: non-teratogenic effects, above.
Other precautions No information available concerning drug interactions, drug and laboratory test interactions, paediatric use, or teratogenic effects on pregnancy.
Adverse reactions Contact dermatitis has been reported. Patients sensitive to birch pollen or celery may have a cross-sensitivity to thyme (31).
Posology Adults and children from 1 year: 1–2g of the dried herb or the equivalent amount of fresh herb as an oral infusion several times a day (30, 36); children up to 1 year: 0.5–1g (36). Fluid extract: dosage calculated according to the dosage of the herb (37). Tincture (1: 10, 70% ethanol): 40 drops up to 3 times daily (38). Topical use: a 5% infusion as a gargle or mouth-wash (30, 38).
- European pharmacopoeia, 2nd ed. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1995.
- Materia medika Indonesia, Jilid. Jakarta, IV Departemen Kesehatan, Republik Indonesia, 1980.
- British herbal phamacopoeia, Part 2. London, British Herbal Medicine Association, 1979.
- Deutsches Arzneibuch 1996. Stuttgart, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, 1996.
- Youngken HW. Textbook of pharmacognosy, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Blakiston, 1950.
- Ghazanfar SA. Handbook of Arabian medicinal plants. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1994:128.
- Farnsworth NR, ed. NAPRALERT database. Chicago, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, March 15, 1995 production (an on-line database available directly through the University of Illinois at Chicago or through the Scientific and Technical Network (STN) of Chemical Abstracts Services).
- Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Paris, Lavoisier, 1995.
- Mossa JS, Al-Yahya MA, Al-Meshal IA. Medicinal plants of Saudi Arabia, Vol. 1. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, King Saud University Libraries, 1987.
- Van den Broucke CO, Lemli JA. Spasmolytic activity of the flavonoids from Thymus vulgaris. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad, scientific edition, 1983, 5:9–14.
- Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.
- Deutsches Arzneibuch 1996. Vol. 2. Methoden der Biologie. Stuttgart, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, 1996.
- European pharmacopoeia, 3rd ed. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1997.
- Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues, 2nd rev. ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1997 (unpublished document WHO/FSF/FOS/97.7; available from Food Safety, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland).
- Twetman S, Hallgren A, Petersson LG. Effect of antibacterial varnish on mutans Streptococci in plaque from enamel adjacent to orthodontic appliances. Caries research, 1995, 29:188–191.
- Petersson LG, Edwardsson S, Arends J. Antimicrobial effect of a dental varnish, in vitro. Swedish dental journal, 1992, 16:183–189.
- Reiter M, Brandt W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 1985, 35:408–414.
- Van Den Broucke CO. Chemical and pharmacological investigation on Thymi herba and its liquid extracts. Planta medica, 1980, 39:253–254.
- Van Den Broucke CO, Lemli JA. Pharmacological and chemical investigation of thyme liquid extracts. Planta medica, 1981, 41:129–135.
- Gordonoff T, Merz H. Über den Nachweis der Wirkung der Expektorantien. Klinische Wochenschrift, 1931, 10:928–932.
- Vollmer H. Untersuchungen über Expektorantien und den Mechanismus ihrer Wirkung. Klinische Wochenschrift, 1932, 11:590–595.
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