Beli luk (Allium sativum L.)
BILJNI PREPARATI BELOG LUKA: Allium sativum
TINKTURA – BELI LUK HSS I
MATIČNA TINKTURA, HIDROETANOLNI TEČNI EKSTRAKT – BELI LUK TM
Allii sativi bulbi recentis extractum ethanolicum liquidum
namenjeni pušačima, kod zloupotrebe alkohola, lekova, nedovoljne fizičke aktivnosti, gojaznosti, ishrane tipa fast food i junk food, osobama preko 50 godina starosti.
BILJNI PREPARATI BELOG LUKA: Allium sativum
TINKTURA – BELI LUK HSS I
MATIČNA TINKTURA, HIDROETANOLNI TEČNI EKSTRAKT – BELI LUK TM
– antiagregant, – antiseptik, – antimikrobik, – fibrinolitik, – hipolipemik.
antiinfektiv, antioksidant, akceptor slobodnih radikala, hipoglikemik, hipolipidemik.
U skladu sa:
Eu. Ph. 8 01.07.2015. monografijom: 2023 Allium sativum ad praeparationes homoeopathicas
WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants – Bulbus Allii Sativi
Eu. Ph. 7.0: Allium sativum ad preparationes homoeopathicas
Biljni preparat u tečnom obliku (nerazblažen ili razblažen) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.
a) Allium sativum L., bulbus (Garlic fresh underground bulbs).
Biljni preparati u tečnom obliku (nerazblaženi ili razblaženi) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.
a) tečni ekstrakt (DER 1:2), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% (v/v).
Allium sativum L., sadrži 589 istraženih hemijskih jedinjenja koja ispoljavaju 813 dejstava (podaci ažurirani marta 2019.).
a) minimalno 0,015% m/m alicina (allicin) (MF: C6H10OS2, MW: 162,273 g/mol−1),
b) u većoj koncentraciji sadrži arginin, asparagin, methionin, pektin, sumpor i jedinjenja sumpora, foliacin,
c) više od svih biljaka sadrži alicin, aliin i alin, aliinazu, dialiltrisulfid, dipropilsulfid, cisteine, guanozin, skordin, skorodozu, ksiloglukan, … .
d) vode sadrži do 88,4% (67,8% lukovica, 86,4% list, 88,4% cvet)
biljni preparati su namenjeni poboljšanju opšteg stanja organizma kroz razna naučno dokazana dejstva.
Upotreba kod urogenitalnih, gastrointestinalnih, respiratornih, kožnih, kardiovaskularnih i imunoloških tegoba, čisti krv od toksičnih materija, teških metala, nikotina i kofeina.
Dr. Džems Djuk (Dr. James Duke) u Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd Ed. (2002). CRC Press, navodi sledeće:
– ima jako dejstvo kod: ateroskleroze, kardiopatije, visokog nivoa holesterola, triglecirida i lipida zatim kod amebijaza, atletskog stopala, streptokoknih, bakterijskih i gljivičnih infekcija, bronhitisa, opekotina, kandidijaza, Ca., prehlada, kašlja, dizenterije, enteritisa, epsgastritisa, groznice, gastritisa i gastroenteritisa, HTA, trovanja jetre (hepatotoxicity – acetaminophen), hiperperistaltike, imunosupresije, intermitentne klaudikacije (ICD-10 I73.9), mikoza, pertusisa, faringitisa, Rejnoovog sindroma (Raynaud’s Syndrome), rinitisa, stomatitisa, ulcus cruris-a, vaginitisa,
– delotvoran kod: apcesa, starenja, alergija, alopecije, apendicitisa, afti, artroza, astme, oparotina, bronhiektazije, Ca.(abdomena, bešike, kolona, žlezda, pluća, prostate, kože, želuca, uterusa), karijesa, kolere, kolika, kolitisa, kongestije, katara, celijakije, grčeva, demencije, dermatitisa, dijabetesa, dijareje, dispepsije, dispneje, bolova u uhu, gripa, gasova, herpesa, helikobaktera, hepatitisa, hiperglikemije i hipoglikemije, imunodepresije, impotencije, inflamacija, insomnije, keratoza, laringitisa, mukoza, nauzeje, nefritisa, nervne iscrpljenosti, neuralgija, trovanja olovom i nikotinom, gojaznosti, otitisa, paradentoze, paraliza, odontitisa, palpitacije, pneumonije, poliomijelitisa, polipa, reumatizma, senilne demencije, sepse, sinuzitisa, upale grla, tromboza, tonzilitisa, trihomonasa, TB, Tu., tifusa, ulceracija, zastoja tečnosti, virusnih i bakterijskih infekcija (stafilokoknih, salmoneloza, šigeloza, Cytomegalovirus, Bacillus, Escherichia,), gljivičnih infekcija (Sporotrichosis, Cryptococcus), parazitnih infekcija (dečijim glistama, valjkastim i prstenastim crvima, amebama, nematodama, lišmanijaze, šuge, Giardiasis, Filariasis, Trypanosomiasis,), …
– u narodnoj medicini kod: adenopatije, polipa, visinske bolesti, anemije, anoreksije, kalkuloza, karbunkula, konstipacije, konvulzija, holecistitisa, hroničnog umora, cistitisa, nagluvosti, slabosti, difterije, hidropsije, dismenoreje, edema, epilepsije, fibroma, gangrene, gihta, glavobolje, hemoroida, hipotenzije, histerije, induracije, psihičkih tegoba, lepre, leukemije, leukodermije, lumbaga, lupusa, limfoma, malarije, melanholije meningitisa, menopauze, mijalgije, miofascitisa, polipa, respiratornih infekcija, išijalgija, stomačnih tegoba, otoka, sinkope, infekcija pljosnatim crvima, trahoma, varikoza, tegoba sa venama, Whitlow/ Felon, …
– spoljašnja primena kod: akni i šuge, ujeda zmija i insekata, bradavica, rana, …
– upotrebljava se kao: antiagregant, antiseptik, fibrinolitik, jak antiaterosklerotik, antiaterogenik, antibakterik, antimikotik, fungicid, hipoholesterolemik, hipoperistaltik, hipotenziv, hipotrigliceridemik, lipolitik, zatim kao afrodizijak, akarifug, amebicid, analgetik, androgenik i antiandrogenik, antialergik, antiartritik, antidijabetik, antifertilitik, antiinﬂamatik, antioksidant, antikancerogenik, antipiretik, antireumatik, antispazmodik, antistresogenik, antitrombik, antitiroid, antitumor, antiulcer, antivirotik, karminativ, holeretik, kardiotonik, dekongestant, digestiv, diuretik, edemagenik, emenagog, estrogenik, glutationigenik, hepatoprotektor, hiperglikemik i hipoglikemik, hipolipidemik imunostimulant, insektifug, interleukenogenik, larvicid, limfocitogenik, miokontraktant i miorelaksant, oksitocid, ovicid, paraziticid, fagocitotoksik, protisticid, sedativ, spermicid, vazodilator, vermifug, vulnerar, pojačavać rada ćelija ubica kancera (NKC enhancer – Natural killer cell enhancer factor), antiprostaglandin, insulin-sparing, antiholinesterase, integrase inhibitor – integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), antigiardial (antiparazitik), antiaﬂatoxin, protiv krpelja … u narodnoj medicini kao antidot (detoksikant), dijaforetik, ekspektorant, gastrotonik, hipouremik, rubefacijent, oreksigenik (stimulator apetita), alekseterik (sprečava infekcije), …
Monografija nemačke E komisije (Commission E Monographs), terapijski vodič za biljne lekove, preporučuje Allium sativum za tretman povišenog nivoa lipida i holesterola u krvi i starosno zavisnih promena kardiovaskularnog sistema.
Za više informacija Koch & Lawson’s Garlic Book.
Doziranje i način primene:
do 2 mL (80 kapi) podeljeno u 2 do 4 doze.
Biljni preparat BELI LUK HSS i TM:
pojedinačna doza: 0,5-1 mL,
preporučena dnevna doza (PDD): 2 mL.
Oralna (15 minuta pre obroka) i lokalna primena.
Upotreba na koži: aplicirati na obolelo mesto u tankom sloju ili obliku impregniranog zavoja.
Napraviti pauzu posle 4 nedelje neprekidne upotrebe.
Po preporukama, preparat postiže najbolje efekte pri upotrebi od 8 do 12 nedelja, duža upotreba je bezbedna uz pauze.
Kontraindikacije: preosetljivost na aktivne supstance,
preosetljivost na biljke porodice (genus Allium, family Liliaceae/ Amaryllidaceae).
Oprezna upotreba kod osoba sa hipertireozom.
Čuvanje: na tamnom, suvom i hladnom mestu do 20˚C, van domašaja dece i izlaganja EM zračenju, u dobro zatvorenoj originalnoj ambalaži.
Rok upotrebe: 5 godina, posle prvog otvaranja 6 meseci.
Pakovanje: 50 mL i 100 mL (1 3/4 fl oz i 3 1/2 fl oz), standarne farmaceutske braon bočice; 250 mL, 500 mL, 1L i 5 L na zahtev.
BELI LUK HSS i TM:
energetska vrednost u 100 mL: 1504 kJ/ 360 kcal,
u preporučenoj dnevnoj dozi (PDD) 2 mL: 30 kJ/ 7,17 kcal,
suve materije (DR) više od 4,0% (Eu.Ph.7), RD 0,885 – 0,960.
Bez konzervanasa, proteina, masti i ugljenih hidrata. BELI LUK HSS i TM su rukom rađeni proizvodi.
Analizu na teške metale, pesticide i mikrobiološku ispravnost preparata broj 4603120601 od 29.03.2016. godine izvršila ANAHEM LABORATORIJA BEOGRAD, u sklopu preparata RESPIRO 30.
TM RSD 600/ 50 mL, 1200/ 100 mL – MATIČNA TINKTURA.
Allium sativum var. sativum (Liliaceae)
Chemicals w/Activities: 262
All Chemicals: 589
Activity (dejstva po broju bioaktivnih jedinjenja)
antioxidant, pesticide, Cancer-preventive, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, antitumor, antiinflammatory, fungicide, antiseptic, antiaggregant,
antidiabetic, antimutagenic, antiviral, hypoglycemic, antiulcer, hypotensive, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antiradicular, vasodilator,
antiherpetic, antiradicular, antileukemic, diuretic, antihepatotoxic, apoptotic, anticancer,
analgesic, antiallergic, antihypertensive, cardioprotective,
antihistaminic, allergenic, immunomodulator, antiHIV, FLavor, antiatherosclerotic, antistaphylococcic, antitumor (colon), antiatherosclerotic, antistaphylococcic,
antiproliferant, laxative, antidepressant, perfumery, antitumor (lung), sedative, anxiolytic, antifatigue, antitumor-promoter, antiencephalopathic,
choleretic, antialzheimeran, Candidicide, lipoxygenase-inhibitor, antimetastatic, antiperoxidant, COX-2-inhibitor, antiencephalopathic, chemopreventive, anxiolytic,
antiparkinsonian, antidementia, antirheumatic, cytotoxic, essential, antidermatitic, antiacne, antiarrhythmic, estrogenic, antiprostatitic,
protisticide, antieczemic, antimelanomic, cyclooxygenase-inhibitor, antiaging, nematicide, antileukotriene, antiedemic,
antiacne, estrogenic, antiprostatitic, antiarrhythmic, antifeedant, antitumor (stomach), ornithine-decarboxylase-inhibitor, vulnerary,
mutagenic, antiplaque, antinitrosaminic, antiasthmatic, anticoronary, antisyndrome-X, antitumor (skin), antitumor (liver), antiobesity, antisickling,
Tinktura belog luka 1:5 Florida herbal pharmacy
Allium sativum var. sativum (Liliaceae)
Garlic Bulb (Allium sativum)
Garlic Bulb|Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts & Their Benefits
Allium sativum (Liliaceae) enjoys the reputation as nature’s most potent weapon against germs when it comes to fighting infection. For thousands of years, people have used Allium sativum (Liliaceae) as a food and a medicine. Along with its antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, Allium sativum (Liliaceae) also may offer cardiovascular benefits, with its antihypertensive effects. The multitude of sulfur compounds found in Allium sativum (Liliaceae) extract is responsible for its effect on blood pressure and each works in a different way to offer protective benefits. Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is one of the most valuable foods. It is good for the heart, liver, gallbladder, stomach, spleen, and lungs. Allium sativum (Liliaceae) Bulb extract detoxifies, even chronic lead poisoning, builds the blood and is an overall great herbal extract. Its expectorant action makes it useful for chronic bronchitis. It has also been used for sickle cell anemia, chronic stomach problems, and stomach catarrh. It has been found to be used with all intestinal infections, such as parasites, dysentery, cholera, typhoid and parathyroid fever. Allium sativum (Liliaceae) bulb herbal tincture has been used for atherosclerosis, high and low blood pressure, high cholesterol and high triglycerides. Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is thought to a powerful antibiotic that helps to destroy harmful bacteria and leaves behind beneficial bacteria for the body to utilize as an infection fighter.
Allium sativum (Liliaceae) contains the compound allicin, which not only gives its odor but its benefits as well. Research has suggested that Allium sativum (Liliaceae) bulb extract increases overall health by reducing cholesterol and blood pressure. One way that Allium sativum (Liliaceae) bulb helps lower blood pressure is by promoting vasodilation, or relaxing of the artery walls, so that blood can flow freely without constriction. Other studies have shown that Allium sativum (Liliaceae) significantly decreases LDL, or bad cholesterol while increasing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs or „good“ cholesterol). This activity reduces the tendency of the blood to clot, thereby increasing circulation and reducing blood pressure and the risk of arteriosclerosis, stroke and heart attacks. Studies have indicated that people who suffered heart attacks and then were given Allium sativum (Liliaceae), had a lower incidence of a second attack. Garlic is believed to play a role in helping to reduce the risk of preeclampsia and its complications.
Allium sativum (Liliaceae) helps to detoxify the body. It is said to stimulate the lymphatic system to throw off waste materials. A natural detoxifier it helps to strengthen blood vessels, providing protection against pollutants and heavy metal toxicity. It is believed to cleanse the kidneys and increase urine flow. Allicin is thought to be as potent as penicillin in its antibiotic properties and is important in reducing struvite kidney stones. It stimulates the production of nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide which will relax the blood vessels. This improves the circulation of the kidneys and prevents the formation of stones and the B-6 contained in Allium sativum (Liliaceae) may reduce urinary oxalate. It also exerts a diuretic action, which helps to flush out small stones. Diuretics cause you to lose water by excreting a greater volume of urine, which can help to speed the metabolism. By increasing metabolism, the fat is released from the body’s cells faster. This action may lead to weight loss.
Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is considered a powerful anticoagulant that is thought to normalize blood platelet adhesion by reducing the stickiness of the blood and stimulating fibrinolysis, a process in which blood clots are dissolved. This action also helps to improve blood circulation and combat arteriosclerosis. Another benefit of Allium sativum (Liliaceae) bulb extracts is that they can help to regulate the body’s blood pressure. So whether you have high or low blood pressure, Allium sativum (Liliaceae) may help to equalize it.
Allium sativum (Liliaceae)) has been thought to be beneficial in ridding the bowels of parasites and is thought to be one of the best choices for killing and expelling parasites such as pinworms, from the human body. It has also been shown to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, the bacterium implicated in the formation of ulcers in the digestive system (peptic ulcer). This wonderful herb is thought to enhance good digestion by increasing bile production and reducing stomach gasses.
Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is used as an antiviral and antifungal. The activity of the parasitic fungus that is associated with AIDS is said to be inhibited by the presence of Allium sativum (Liliaceae), and the growth of the yeast organism. Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is considered to be an antioxidant that helps to promote healthy immune system function and inhibit destructive, free radical or oxidative damage to tissues or cells. Garlic is said to strengthen the immune system and build the body’s defense against harmful infectious invasion and malignant disease.
Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is thought to support healthy blood-sugar levels in late-onset diabetes, as it helps regulate blood-sugar levels by tying up the chemical receptors that would otherwise deactivate insulin, the hormone that controls sugar usage and also stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin. It accomplishes this without stimulating weight gain (a common side effect with certain prescription medications). A study was done in 1976 and it was reported from the British medical journal Lancet, noting that Garlic (and onion) is very hypoglycemic in nature and can lower blood sugar levels in diabetics (people with high or low blood sugar levels should always consult their physicians before using).
Applied directly to the ear canal, Allium sativum (Liliaceae) is a traditional remedy for earaches; it retards the growth of Aspergillus and Candida, two fungi that sometimes cause ear inflammation.
Nutrients: Calcium, folate, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, and C.
Ingredients: Allium sativum (Liliaceae) Bulb, Structured Water, 96% Alcohol.
Non-Alcohol: Allium sativum (Liliaceae) Bulb, Structured Water, Vegetable Glycerin.
All of our ingredients are Certified Organic, Kosher, or Responsibly Wildcrafted. No genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are involved. All other products that are distributed by us meet our high-quality standards.
Instructions: Use 10-20 drops in juice or water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 3 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children.
Contraindications: Taking therapeutic doses of Allium sativum (Liliaceae) during pregnancy and lactation may cause indigestion. Because of Garlic’s anti-clotting properties, people taking anticoagulant drugs (Coumadin, aspirin, etc.) should check with their physicians before taking Allium sativum (Liliaceae). Those scheduled for surgery should inform their surgeons if they are taking Garlic. Because Garlic is hypoglycemic in nature, diabetics and people with low blood sugar levels should always consult their physicians before using.
Disclaimer: The information presented herein by Herbal Alchemy is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own healthcare provider.
HOMŒOPATHIC MATERIA MEDICA
by William BOERICKE, M.D.
Presented by Médi-T
Acts directly on intestinal mucous membrane increasing peristalsis. Colitis, with pathological flora. Has vaso-dilatory properties. Arterial hypotension begins usually in 30 to 45 minutes after twenty to forty drop doses of the tincture.
Adapted to fleshy subjects with dyspepsia and catarrhal affections. High livers. Patients who eat a great deal more, especially meat, than they drink. Pain in hip, pain in psoas and iliac muscles. Pulmonary tuberculosis.
Cough and expectoration diminishes, temperature becomes normal, weight is gained, and sleep becomes regular. Hćmoptysis.
Head.–Heavy; pulsation in temples; catarrhal deafness.
Mouth.–Much sweetish saliva after meals and at night. Sensation of a hair on tongue or throat.
Stomach.–Voracious appetite. Burning eructations. Least change in diet causes trouble. Constipation, with constant dull pains in bowels. Tongue pale, red papillć.
Respiratory.–Constant rattling of mucus in bronchi. Cough in the morning after leaving bedroom, with mucous expectoration, which is tenacious and difficult to raise. Sensitive to cold air. Dilated bronchi, with fetid expectoration. Darting pain in chest.
Female.–Pain in swelling of breasts. Eruption in vagina and on breasts and vulva during menses.
Relationship.–Allium Sat according to Dr. Teste, belongs to the Bryonia group, including Lycopod. Nux. Colocy, Digital and Ignatia which affect deeply all flesh eating animals and hardly at all vegetarians. Hence their special applicability to meat eaters rather than to exclusive vegetarians.
Compare: Capsicum; Arsenic; Senega; Kali nit.
Dose.–Third to sixth potency. In tuberculosis, dose, four to six grammes in moderate state of dessication daily, in divided doses.
Copyright © Médi-T 1999
Mechanism of Action
- Constituents: Chemical analysis in the 1800s attributed garlic’s activity to the sulfur containing garlic oil. In the mid 1900s an American chemist named the strong smelling liquid „allicin“.18 The sulfur compound alliin (S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide) produces allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate) via the enzyme allinase when the bulb is crushed or ground. Other sulfur compounds, peptides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenols have increasingly been identified as possible active ingredients19,20,10 as allicin is metabolized. The exact mechanism of action underlying garlic’s effects remains unknown and may vary according to the preparation21 and the therapeutic effect.
- Garlic appears to exert numerous effects on the cardiovascular system, and Atherosclerosis in particular, beyond the reduction of serum lipids. There are possibly multiple protective effects of garlic22,12,23, including inhibition of platelet aggregation and enhancement of fibrinolysis. Wild garlic (Allium ursinum) has been reported to contain similar amounts of sulfur-containing compounds (thiosulfinates and ajoenes) as garlic (Allium sativum), and to exert similar effects on cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, angiotensin converting enzyme, and platelet aggregation.24
- Lipid-lowering Effects: Garlic’s lipid lowering effects may occur via inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase or other enzymes25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32, possibly by diallyl di- and trisulphide components of garlic.33,34 Other suggested mechanisms include increased loss of bile salts in feces and mobilization of tissue lipids into circulation35, as garlic has a profound effect on post-prandial hyperlipidemia.36 Wild garlic (Allium ursinum) has shown similar efficacy to garlic (Allium sativum) in decreasing hepatocyte cholesterol synthesis In vitro.24,37Aged garlic extract and its constituents have been shown to inhibit Cu2+-induced oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein.38 Aged garlic extract and its constituent S-allylcysteine have been found to protect vascular endothelial cells from injury caused by oxidized LDL.39
- Animal and human cell lines have demonstrated reductions in vascular tissue lipids40,41, fatty streak formation and atherosclerotic plaque size.22,42,43,44,12,40,45 The mechanism of action may include reduction of lipoprotein oxidation, as demonstrated In vitro38,39,46 and in vivo47, possibly due to organosulfur compounds in garlic.48 However, this hypothesis has been in dispute based on a six-month trial in moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers which failed to demonstrate any effects of garlic supplementation on lipoprotein oxidation.49
- Platelet Effects: Garlic and its derived compound ajoene have demonstrated inhibition of platelet aggregation In vitro and in animals50,51,52,15,9,53,54,55,56,57,58,59, and reduction of platelet-dependent thrombus formation.60,61 Research has demonstrated inhibition of platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic men62, in healthy subjects, in patients with coronary artery disease63,64,65,66,67, and in subjects with cerebrovascular risk factors3,11. However, a study using a low dietary dosage found no such effects.68 Raw garlic has been shown to inhibit platelet cyclooxygenase In vitro.50 Dose-dependent inhibition of cyclooxygenase in human placenta villi was observed with garlic and with allicin-negative (acid washed) garlic.69 Anti-platelet activity may be attributable to garlic constituents including adenosine, allicin and paraffinic polysulfides.70 Compared to raw garlic, a boiled aqueous garlic extract demonstrated an approximately 50% decrease in platelet aggregation at identical concentrations50, 59, suggesting that cooking garlic may reduce anti-platelet effects. Raw garlic has been shown to reduce serum thromboxane B2 in animal and human research63, 35, at a dose of one clove per day71. However, boiling garlic prior to administration appears to reduce or abolish this effect64, again suggesting a negative impact of cooking on garlic’s anti-platelet activity.
- Fibrinolytic Effects: Increased fibrinolytic activity may account for some degree of garlic’s anti-clotting effects72, 20, 73, involving fibrinogen and plasminogen16. Both raw garlic and fried garlic have demonstrated significant increases in fibrinolytic activity in man74, as well as essential oil from raw garlic36. An increase in fibrinolytic activity in patients with ischemic heart disease was found to be maintained after 7-8 weeks of continued therapy.75, 76 However, one study reported that fibrinolytic activity returned to pre-treatment levels after 12 weeks of continuous garlic therapy.76
- Vascular Effects: Vasorelaxant properties of garlic have been noted in multiple pre-clinical studies.77, 78, 79 Cutaneous microperfusion is increased in humans following ingestion of 600mg of garlic80, 81, 82, and vasodilation of conjunctival arterioles and venules occurs at 900mg.83 Garlic may act on the nitric oxide system84, 85, 86 and exert effects on the elastic properties of vasculature87, yielding changes in systemic blood pressure86. It has been suggested that allicin is the component of garlic responsible for nitric oxide-mediated effects.88 Prostaglandins have been identified in garlic extracts which may exert pharmacologic effects89, although this has not been demonstrated in vivo.
- Chemoprotective/Anti-tumor Effects: Animal studies have reported protective effects of garlic against hepatotoxins6, 90, 7, 8, cyclophosphamide91, adriamycin92 methylcholanthrene93, gentamicin5, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide94, and bromobenzene95, 96. Garlic has demonstrated strong inhibition of cancer development in the presence of known tumor promoters including 12-O-tetradecanoylpharbol-13-acetate97, 98 and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene99, and phorbol-myristate-acetate100, as well as tumor inducers such as 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene98 and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine101,102. There is some evidence that the chemical constituents containing allyl groups may be responsible for chemoprotective properties.103 Research has provided evidence of anti-proliferative effects of garlic on human cancer cell lines104, including induction of apoptosis105,106,107,108,109, regulation of cell cycle progression110, and signal transduction modification. Both cellular proliferation111,112 and immune function appear to be affected113,114.
- Immunologic Effects: The immunologic activity of garlic may include enhanced phagocytosis, lymphocyte proliferation, enhanced killer cell activity and cytokine production, and prevention of immune suppression.115,116,117,118,119,120 There has been suggestion that heating may adversely affect this benefit, related to a loss of alliinase activity121, and that different preparations have variant pharmacologic activities21.
- Antimicrobial Effects (Bacteria, Fungi, Yeast): Garlic has been demonstrated In vitro to exert activity against multiple pathogens, including bacteria122,123,14,124,125,10,126,127, including resistant strains128, mycobacteria129,130,131, Helicobacter pylori132,133,10, and fungi134,135. Garlic extract has been found to be bactericidal to Histoplasma capsulatum.136 Ajoene alone possesses antibacterial activity against both gram positive and negative bacterial species and inhibits yeast growth In vitro, and the disulfide bond in ajoene may be responsible for these effects.126 The substrate alliin and its enzyme are found in separate but adjacent compartments of the garlic clove, and appear to exert antimicrobial activity when they are joined. Allicin may act via inhibition of thiol-containing and other enzyme systems, DNA, RNA and protein synthesis.124,137,138,20 It has been suggested that garlic oil’s antimicrobial activity is more potent than garlic powder on a unit weight basis.139
- The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) against six clinical yeast isolates ranged between 0.8-1.6mg/mL in one study.138 Garlic appeared to alter the structure and integrity of the outer surface of yeast cells as well as decrease their total lipid content. Garlic was also shown to increase phosphatidylserines while decreasing phosphatidylcholines. Oxygen consumption of yeast cells was also reduced by garlic. The anti-candidal activity of AGE was antagonized by thiols including L-cysteine, glutathione and 2-mercaptoethanol. The effect of AGE on the macromolecular synthesis of Candida albicans revealed protein and nucleic acid syntheses to be inhibited, and lipid synthesis to be arrested.140 Antagonism of lipid synthesis may be a component of the anti-candidal activity of garlic.
- Anti-viral Effects: In vitro studies have demonstrated effects against several viruses141, including influenza B virus, herpes simplex virus type 1141, herpes simplex virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 3, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human rhinovirus type 21,2, and cytomegalovirus4. Weber reported that the compound ajoene, found in oil-macerates of garlic, possesses a high level of antiviral activity followed by allicin, allyl methyl thiosulfinate and methyl allyl thiosulfinate.2
- Glycemic Effects: SACS (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide), an antioxidant isolated from garlic, has been found to significantly stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells isolated from normal rats.13 However, multiple human studies have failed to demonstrate glycemic effects of garlic.
- Genitourinary Effects: Chronic garlic ingestion for 70 days has been associated with suppression of spermatogenesis in rats.17
- Garlic compounds are rapidly absorbed through mucous membranes and skin. Excretion is primarily via liver, kidney and intestines.20
- Nagae142 described the pharmacokinetics of S-Allylcysteine (SAC) in animal models. The authors demonstrated a first pass effect following rapid gastrointestinal absorption; with liver and kidney metabolism.
- The pharmacokinetics of the vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin, have been described; maximal concentrations 15-30 minutes after oral absorption.143
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