Anis (Pimpinella anisum L.)

Anis (Pimpinella anisum L.)

Anis (Pimpinella anisumL.)



Anise (Pimpinella anisum)

Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms Anace, anason, aneys, anice, anis, anís, aniseed, anise seed, anisi, anisi fructus, anisi vulgaris, anison (Greek), anissame, anisu, anisum (Latin), anisun, anisur, anis vert (French), anny, annyle, anysum (Arabic), Apiaceae (family), fruto de anis (Spanish), fructus anisi, graines d’anis (French), p-anisaldehyde, Pimpinella anisetumPimpinella anisum, saunf, sconio, semi d’Aniso (Italian), simiente de anis (Spanish), sompf, souf, sweet Alice, sweet cumin, Tut-te See-Hau.

Mechanism of Action


  • Constituents: The major constituent of anise is anethole.7,2,8 Other constituents include gamma-himachalene (2-4%), p-anisaldehyde (<1%), methylchavicol (0.9-1.5%), cis-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (approximately 3%), and trans-pseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (approximately 1.3%).8 Pimpinella essential oils also contain mono-, sesqui- and trinorsesquiterpenoids, propenylphenols, and pseudoisoeugenols.9
  • Flavonoids isolated from anise include quercetin 3-glucuronide, rutin, luteolin 7-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, apigenin 7-glucoside and a luteolin glycoside10,11
  • From the fruit of anise, eight glycosides of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol were found.12
  • Sesquiterpenes isolated from the essential oil of anise (fruits and shoots) include gamma-himachalene and the diterpene neophytadiene.13
  • Studies indicate that anethole is not produced in the root of the plant; however the predominant phenolic precursor to anethole epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate (EPB) and phenolics were highest in root cultures.7
  • Anise has also been shown to contain aflatoxin, a mycotoxin.14
  • Anise also contains acetaldehyde, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, alpha-zingiberene, anisaldehyde, anisic-acid, anisyl-alcohol, ar-curcumene, ascorbic-acid, bergapten, beta-bisabolene, beta-pinene, boron, caffeic-acid, calcium, camphene, chlorogenic-acid, choline, copper, d-carvone, dianethole , estragole, eugenol, fiber, furfural, hydroquinone, imperatorin, iron, isoorientin, isovitexin, limonene, linalool, magnesium, manganese, mannitol, methyl-chavicol, myristicin, p-cresol, phellandrene, phosphorus, potassium, rutin, scoparone, scopoletin, seselin, squalene, stigmasterol, trans-anethole, umbelliferone, zinc.
  • Anticoagulant effects: Coumarin derivatives and sterols have been reported in the tissue cultures of anise roots.6
  • Anti-diuretic effects: Aniseed, when added to the drinking water of rats, reduced the volume of urine produced and increased the activity of the renal Na+-K+ ATPase, even at low concentrations.5 It is proposed that the anti-diuretic effects are caused by a stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump in the kidney, which increases tubular sodium reabsorption and osmotic water movement. However, it was found that aniseed oil had no effect on water absorption from the colon and did not affect the activity of colonic Na+-K+ ATPase.
  • Antifungal effects: The essential oil of anise completely inhibited Aspergillus flavusA. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and Fusarium moniliforme at concentrations <500ppm.15
  • Bronchodilatory effects: In an in vitro study using guinea pig bronchial cells, Boskabady et al. determined that the relaxant effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of anise essential oil were due to inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors.16
  • Estrogenic effects: Anise essential oil contains anethole, a phytoestrogen with estrogenic effects.2 Preliminary research has shown that anethole may not be the only constituent of anise with estrogenic effects; however more research in this area is needed before any conclusions can be made. An aqueous extract of anise has shown antiestrogenic effects on breast cancer cells without any proliferative effects on cervical adenocarcinoma cells in vitro.4 The presence of estradiol reduced the antiestrogenic effect which implies an estrogen receptor-related mechanism.
  • Glucose absorption effects: Aniseed oil has been shown to enhance glucose absorption in the jejunum of rats.5 It also has increased the Na+-K+ ATPase activity in a jejunal homogenate in a dose dependent manner. Aniseed oil is thought to increase glucose absorption by increasing the activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase thereby increasing the sodium gradient needed for the glucose transport.
  • Insecticide effects: Anise contains many phenylpropanoids which have shown insecticidal and acaricidal activities.17,3,1
  • Metabolic pathway: The genus Pimpinella contains pseudoisoeugenold, which are phenylpropanoids with a 2,5-dioxy substitution on the phenyl ring. The metabolic pathway of these pseudoisoeugeonld was determined by Reichling et al. as follows: L-phenylalanine is converted to (E)-cinnamic acid by phenylalanine ammonia lyase and that (E)-cinnamic acid is converted to p-coumaric acid by cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid, an analogue of L-phenylalanine, inhibited the incorporation of L-[3′-13C] phenylalanine into epoxy- pseudoisoeugenol-(2-methylbutyrate).18 Up to 2% of the precursor DL-[3′-13C] phenyl lactate was incorporated into epoxy-pseudoisoeugenol-(2-methylbutyrate).
  • Muscle relaxant effects: Anise oil has demonstrated an increase in resting force of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. Anethole may be responsible for the positive inotropic effect.19
  • Neurological effects: In a study done in mice, it appeared that the essential oil of anise may reduce the morphine preference via a GABAergic mechanism.20 Some spices traditionally used in winter cooking, including anise, nutmeg, cinnamon and clove, contain two groups of chemicals, the allybenzenes and their isomers, propenylbenzenes, which are thought to acts as metabolic precursors of amphetamines.21


  • The major routes of elimination of anise are via urination and exhalation.22



Lee, H. S. p-Anisaldehyde: acaricidal component of Pimpinella anisum seed oil against the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Planta Med 2004;70(3):279-281. 15114512

Tabanca, N., Khan, S. I., Bedir, E., Annavarapu, S., Willett, K., Khan, I. A., Kirimer, N., and Baser, K. H. Estrogenic activity of isolated compounds and essential oils of Pimpinella species from Turkey, evaluated using a recombinant yeast screen. Planta Med 2004;70(8):728-735. 15368661

Prajapati, V., Tripathi, A. K., Aggarwal, K. K., and Khanuja, S. P. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour Technol  2005;96(16):1749-1757. 16051081

Kassi, E., Papoutsi, Z., Fokialakis, N., Messari, I., Mitakou, S., and Moutsatsou, P. Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties. J Agric Food Chem  11-17-2004;52(23):6956-6961. 15537303

Kreydiyyeh, S. I., Usta, J., Knio, K., Markossian, S., and Dagher, S. Aniseed oil increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat. Life Sci 12-19-2003;74(5):663-673. 14623036

Kartnig, V., Moeckel, H., and Maunz, B. [The occurrence of cumarins and sterols in tissue-cultures of roots of Anethum graveolens and Pimpinella anisum (author’s transl)]. Planta Med 1975;27(1):1-13. 1161870

Andarwulan, N. and Shetty, K. Phenolic content in differentiated tissue cultures of untransformed and Agrobacterium-transformed roots of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). J Agric Food Chem  1999;47(4):1776-1780. 10564054

Rodrigues, V. M., Rosa, P. T., Marques, M. O., Petenate, A. J., and Meireles, M. A. Supercritical extraction of essential oil from aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L) using CO2: solubility, kinetics, and composition data. J Agric Food Chem  3-12-2003;51(6):1518-1523. 12617576

Tabanca, N., Demirci, B., Ozek, T., Kirimer, N., Baser, K. H., Bedir, E., Khan, I. A., and Wedge, D. E. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oils from Pimpinella species gathered from Central and Northern Turkey. J Chromatogr A 6-9-2006;1117(2):194-205. 16616174

Kunzemann, J. and Herrmann, K. [Isolation and identification of flavon(ol)-O-glycosides in caraway (Carum carvi L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and of flavon-C-glycosides in anise. I. Phenolics of spices (author’s transl)]. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch  7-29-1977;164(3):194-200. 910554

Gebhardt, Y., Witte, S., Forkmann, G., Lukacin, R., Matern, U., and Martens, S. Molecular evolution of flavonoid dioxygenases in the family Apiaceae. Phytochemistry 2005;66(11):1273-1284. 15913674

Kitajima, J., Ishikawa, T., Fujimatu, E., Kondho, K., and Takayanagi, T. Glycosides of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol from the fruits of anise, coriander and cumin. Phytochemistry 2003;62(1):115-120. 12475627

Burkhardt, G., Reichling, J., Martin, R., and Becker, H. Terpene hydrocarbons in Pimpinella anisum L. Pharm Weekbl Sci 6-20-1986;8(3):190-193. 3737372

El Kady, I. A., El Maraghy, S. S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 1995;40(3):297-300. 8919936

Soliman, K. M. and Badeaa, R. I. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem Toxicol  2002;40(11):1669-1675. 12176092

Boskabady, M. H. and Ramazani-Assari, M. Relaxant effect of Pimpinella anisum on isolated guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). J Ethnopharmacol  2001;74(1):83-88. 11137352

Reichling, J., Merkel, B., and Hofmeister, P. Studies on the biological activities of rare phenylpropanoids of the genus Pimpinella. J Nat Prod  1991;54(5):1416-1418. 1800640

Reichling, J., Kemmerer, B., and Sauer-Gurth, H. Biosynthesis of pseudoisoeugenols in tissue cultures of Pimpinella anisum. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase activities. Pharm World Sci 7-28-1995;17(4):113-119. 7581216

Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung  1985;35(1A):408-414. 4039178

Sahraei, H., Ghoshooni, H., Hossein, Salimi S., Mohseni, Astani A., Shafaghi, B., Falahi, M., and Kamalnegad, M. The effects of fruit essential oil of the Pimpinella anisum on acquisition and expression of morphine induced conditioned place preference in mice. J Ethnopharmacol  2002;80(1):43-47. 11891086

Idle, J. R. Christmas gingerbread (Lebkuchen) and Christmas cheer–review of the potential role of mood elevating amphetamine-like compounds formed in vivo and in furno. Prague Med Rep  2005;106(1):27-38. 16007907

Caldwell, J. and Sutton, J. D. Influence of dose size on the disposition of trans-[methoxy-14C]anethole in human volunteers. Food Chem Toxicol  1988;26(2):87-91. 3366415



Pimpinella anisum (Apiaceae)  Common names: Sweet Cumin; Anise  Activities: 702 All Chemicals: 277

Pesticide, Antiinflammatory, Cancer-Preventive, Antibacterial, Antispasmodic, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, FLavor, Fungicide, Perfumery, Antimutagenic, Insecticide, Antitumor, Irritant, Antiviral, Hypotensive, Analgesic, Insectifuge, Allergenic, Antiaggregant, Calcium-Antagonist, Hepatoprotective, Antiulcer, Sedative, Nematicide, Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor, Antifeedant, Diuretic, Antihistaminic, Hypocholesterolemic, Vasodilator, Antiradicular, Cytotoxic, Choleretic, Allelochemic, Antidiabetic, Antiherpetic, Herbicide, Antiproliferant, Anesthetic, Apoptotic, Antiarthritic, Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor, CNS-Depressant, Antihepatotoxic, Antiallergic, Antiedemic, Antileukemic, Mutagenic, Candidicide, Antiosteoporotic, Immunomodulator, Antinociceptive, Anticancer, antiatherosclerotic, Hypoglycemic, Myorelaxant, Estrogenic, Antitumor-Promoter, Expectorant, Antiatherosclerotic, Antimitotic, Antistaphylococcic, Cardioprotective, Antidepressant, Chemopreventive, carminative, Immunostimulant, Antipyretic, Antiasthmatic, Antihypertensive, Carcinogenic, Antirheumatic, Spasmogenic, Antiacne, Anticataract, Vulnerary, AntiHIV, Sunscreen, Antimelanomic, …


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Anise Seed (Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae)
Anise Seed Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts & Benefits

Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae seed is native to Greece and Egypt and the herb has been used since the seventh century for various health ailments. The Romans greatly exploited the use of Anise seed in medicine, and today many use this herbal remedy to support digestion and alleviate indigestion, bloating and gas. One advantage to taking Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae seed tincture over related herbs such as Dill, Fennel, and Caraway, is that it’s much more powerful against and resistant to, harmful organisms. Those who suffer from respiratory illnesses such as the common cold, bronchitis or asthma, may appreciate the benefits of Anise as an expectorant. The herb has been used medicinally to loosen mucus in the lungs and make coughs more productive. In fact, many cough syrups list Anise as an ingredient. The herb has been used for hormonal imbalances, especially in women. These benefits may include a reduction of PMS symptoms, increased libido, and the promotion of lactation in women who are breastfeeding. There are some studies that suggest those with diabetes may also benefit from the hormonal effects of Anise seed liquid tincture, to help regulate blood sugar levels. Additional benefits include its use as a diuretic and its mild sedative effects. It is believed to help eliminate excess fluid buildup in the body. This herbal remedy is popular for those who prefer a natural approach to insomnia. Anise is often added to soaps and skin-care products as a treatment for oily skin, and it may also help to fight acne, in mild cases. And it is a fantastic remedy for bad breath! The extract of Anise seed also has strong antioxidant activity, superior to BHT and BHA.
Candida Albicans is a yeast or form of fungi and is found naturally in the intestinal tract, genitourinary tract, mouth, and throat. When your body’s internal balance of bacteria and fungi is disturbed, it can grow unchecked, and lead to a serious infection known as candidiasis. Extract from the Anise plant, Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae, has shown significant promise as a natural anti-fungal. Other research conducted at the University of Mississippi’s School Pharmacy evaluated various plant extracts for their resistance to fungus and it was noted that Anise Seed liquid extract was the best at inhibiting both fungal and yeast proliferation. Additionally, it has been tested for its activity against several harmful strains of bacteria, including staph infections, E. coli, and salmonella, and was found to have the highest resistance to bacteria. For patients undergoing antibiotic or immune-system-suppressing therapy, chronic urinary infection of candida can be a constant problem. In a 2010 study at the Immunology Research Institute and Clinic in Nagoya, Japan, the herb was found to have natural compounds that demonstrate resistance to fungus effectively.
Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae, an effective expectorant, can help to loosen phlegm in the respiratory tract and is used in cases of an unproductive cough and colds by herbalists as a cough suppressant. Anise seed is considered a fine antiseptic; it helps combat sinusitis and infection.
Two ingredients present in anise, are chemically similar to the female hormone estrogen. And because of its antispasmodic properties, it helps to ease cramps, induce menstruation and facilitate childbirth. Nursing mothers have used Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae to increase the production of their breast milk. This herb, with its mild estrogenic activity, has been said to relieve menopausal symptoms and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. It helps in the reduction of menstrual pains and induces menstruation. It is also an excellent remedy for relieving the symptoms of menopause and effectively combats the anxiety and depression naturally.
Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae plays an important role in the treatment of some disorders of the nervous system. Anethole, the active constituent of Anise seed, promotes activation of the neurotransmitter the controls the autonomic nervous system. The neurotransmitter is a target for the treatment of such diseases as myasthenia gravis and Alzheimer’s disease. Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae Seed is known to have sedative and narcotic effects, it can be used to calm down epileptic and hysteric attacks by slowing down respiration, circulation, and nervous response.
This wonderful herb also has a reputation for increasing the libido in both men and women. At the same time, the tincture made from these Anise seeds may be beneficial in the treatment of impotence and frigidity in individuals. And it is great for alleviating mental tension restoring mental balance.
Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae is one of the best antiseptics that one can find. It can be used externally in treating problems like scabies and lice infestation. Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae is also used for poorly healing wounds, in order to destroy germs. In a study done in 2010, Anise was found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus, a bacteria that causes skin infections, and may be helpful in cases where antibiotic resistance is a problem. Another study found Anise to be effective against herpes simplex virus type 2 when introduced at the stage of infection after exposure and before the virus attached to the cells. The research also supports treating recurrent cold sores with a topical application of Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae seed herbal extract.
Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae seed is a popular remedy for digestive disorders, such as diarrhea and vomiting, and for ensuring normal bowel movements and improving appetite. Anethole and some of the other compounds found in the herb seeds display anti-spasmodic and carminative properties, meaning that they either prevent the formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract or facilitate the expulsion of gas. If you commonly experience mild indigestion, flatulence, bloating or intestinal pain after eating, try Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae seed tincture for symptomatic relief. The various compounds found in Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae seed deter the growth of bacteria and kill parasites in the body.
One of the health benefits of Anise is that it helps maintain oral health. The antimicrobial and antibacterial properties make it a perfect ingredient of an effective mouthwash. Anise Seed liquid herbal tincture can help banish bad breath and lower the risks of mouth infections. Anise Seed can also help to relieve toothaches.
Nutrients: Antioxidants, Calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, copper, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, C, and E.
Ingredients: Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae, Structured Water, 96% Alcohol.
Non-Alcohol: Pimpinella anisium – Apiaceae, Structured Water, and Vegetable Glycerin.
All of our ingredients are Certified Organic, Kosher, or Responsibly Wildcrafted. No genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are involved. All other products that are distributed by us meet our high-quality standards.
Instructions: Use 10-20 drops in juice or water, or under the tongue. May be taken 2 – 4 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children.
Contraindications: Avoid Anise Seed Herbal Supplement if you have an allergic or inflammatory skin condition. Anise should not be used when taking iron supplements or blood thinners (Coumadin, Wafarin®, etc.). Large doses of anise can act as a narcotic in the system. Excess usage must be avoided, especially in babies. Excess dosage might lead to dehydration.Women in the first term of pregnancy must also abstain from taking anise, with the exception of minute amounts.
Disclaimer: The information presented herein by Herbal Alchemy is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own healthcare provider.