Ruzmarin – Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae)
BILJNI PREPARATI RUZMARINA:
TINKTURA, RUZMARIN HSS, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušene biljke, DER 1:5;
MATIČNA TINKTURA, RUZMARIN TM, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sveže biljke, DER 1:2;
ETARSKO ULJE, RUZMARIN EOL;
Rosmarini tinctura DER 1:5,
Rosmarini herbae recentis extractum ethanolicum liquidum DER 1:2,
Rosmarini aetheroleum Ph.Eur. extra pure.
namenjen poboljšanju cirkulacije krvi, slabe probave i tromosti želuca, anemije, …
R. officinalis is used as a food additive and medicine, and is also grown for its essential oils and as a bee plant for honey production (USDA-ARS, 2014). It is cultivated for its aromatic oils in the Mediterranean, and in India it is reputedly quite widely cultivated in gardens, while in Pakistan it is also apparently used as a hedge plant (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). The species is known to be sedative, carminative, sudorific, cardiac stimulant, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, diuretic, digestive, antiseptic, and anti-spasmodic (Quattrocchi, 2012).
Antifungal and pesticidal effects of the essential oil of rosemary have been widely investigated. Kiran and Prakash (2015) report effectiveness of the essential oil used as a fumigant against Sitophilus oryzae and Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and record inhibition of enzyme activity in the test insects. Mattei et al. (2014) report that the essential oil gives some control of Meloidogyne javanica but is ineffective against Pratylenchus brachyurus. Studies on antifungal activity, including against plant pathogenic fungi, include Ozcan and Chalchat (2008), Pitarokili et al., (2008) and Matusinsky et al. (2015).
The following has been taken from Guzman (1999): “The fresh or dried leaves are excellent flavouring agents in vegetables, meat (particularly lamb, veal and roasted chicken), sauces, stews, herbal butters, cream soups, fruit salads, jams, biscuits and bread. The dry leaves are also used in crushed or powder form, primarily in food preparations. Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowering tops and leaves, is used to season processed foods, but for the most part it is employed in perfumes, in scenting soaps, detergents, household sprays and other related technical products. It finds application in denaturing alcohol and is popular in aromatherapy. In the USA the regulatory status ‘generally recognized as safe’ has been accorded to rosemary (GRAS-2991), rosemary oil (GRAS-2992) and rosemary oleoresin (GRAS 3001). The maximum permitted level of rosemary oil in food products is about 0.003%. Rosemary oleoresin is used in the food industry as a natural antioxidant, for instance in cooked meat products. In traditional medicine, rosemary is thought to fortify the brain and refresh the memory. Flowering tops and leaves are considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, aperient, emmenagogue, stimulant, stomachic and astringent. Rosemary also serves as a household remedy for headaches, bruises, colds, nervous tension, asthma, baldness and sore throat. In the Philippines, an infusion of the leaves is used as an eyewash for slight catarrhal conjunctivitis, as vapour baths for rheumatism, paralysis and incipient catarrhs, and to bathe women in puerperal state. Rosemary leaves are therapeutically allowed internally for dyspeptic complaints, and externally for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems. Rosemary is very popular as an ornamental plant used as a ground cover, hedge or shrub and is even transformed by hobbyists into bonsai or planted in hanging baskets. The leaves and flowers can be carefully dried and sold in elegant sachets and potpourris. For the last 1000 years in Europe, rosemary has been a symbol of happiness, fidelity and love, and a wedding and funeral flower.
BILJNI PREPARATI RUZMARINA:
TINKTURA, RUZMARIN HSS, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušene biljke, DER 1:5;
MATIČNA TINKTURA, RUZMARIN TM, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sveže biljke, DER 1:2, Ph. Fra. 2003.;
ETARSKO ULJE, RUZMARIN EOL.
Rosmarini tinctura DER 1:5;
Rosmarini herbae recentis extractum ethanolicum liquidum DER 1:2, Ph. Fra. 2003.;
Rosmarini aetheroleum Ph.Eur. extra pure.
ATC: – antispazmodik i pozitivni inotropik – cirkulatonik, – antianemik, – digestiv.
U skladu sa:
Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use), DIRECTIVE 2004/24/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 31 March 2004.
Eu. Ph. 01.07.2015. monografijom: Rosmarini folium 1560, Rosmarini aetheroleum 1846
French Pharmacopoeia 2003: Rosmarinus officinalis ad praeparationes homoeopathicas (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS POUR PRÉPARATIONS HOMÉOPATHIQUES), method 1.1.5 (2371), HAB Method 3a.
15 July 2010, EMA/HMPC/13633/2009, Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC): Community herbal monograph on Rosmarinus officinalis
L., folium, Final
EMA/HMPC/13631/2009 od 15.07.2010.: Assessment report on Rosmarinus officinalis L., aetheroleum and Rosmarinus officinalis L., folium
EMA/HMPC/235453/2009 od 15.07.2010.: Community herbal monograph on Rosmarinus officinalis L., aetheroleum (4a *Rosmarinus officinalis e foliis recentibus)
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia 1979: (Rosmarinus).
Biljni preparati u tečnom obliku (nerazblaženi ili razblaženi) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.
a) Rosmarinus officinalis L., summitus (Fresh flowering branches).
a) tečni ekstrakt (DER 1:2), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% v/v
b) tečni ekstrakt (DER 1:5), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% v/v
c) etarsko ulje ekstra čisto.
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), sadrži 626 istraženih hemijskih jedinjenja koja ispoljavaju 749 dejstava (podaci ažurirani jula 2019.).
a) minimalno 0,05% m/m ukupnih hidroksicinamskih derivata, u obliku rozmarinske kiseline (MF: C18H18O8, MW: 360,31484 g/mol−1),
b) u većoj koncentraciji sadrži oleanolinsku kiselinu (najviše posle Syzygium aromaticum), bornil acetat (najviše posle Lavandula angustifolia), urzolinsku kiselinu, verbenon, mircen, borneol, γ-muurolene synthase, fenhon, δ-terpineol, eukaliptol, kamfor, kamfen, α i β-pinen, β-kariofilen, 1,8-cineol,
Indikacije: biljni preparati su namenjeni poboljšanju opšteg stanja organizma kroz razna naučno dokazana dejstva.
Upotreba kod gastrointestinalnih, reumatskih i cirkulatornih tegoba. Efektivno deluje na stafilokoke i streptokoke, ešerihiju i kandidu.
– ima jako dejstvo kod: anoreksije, holecistitisa, cirkulatornih tegoba, grčeva, dispepsija, hepatitisa, reumatizma, išijasa, inflamacija, infekcija urinarnog trakta (UTI),
– delotvoran kod: Alchajmera, anafilaksije, artroza, ateroskleroza, modrica,Ca.(slezine, jetre, usta, dojke, kože), kandidijaza, slabosti kapilara, kardiopatije, katarakte, konvulzija, dijabetesa, edema, enteritisa, escherichije, gasova i nadutosti, gastritisa, Infekcija, inflamacija, letargije, niskog krvnog pritiska, migrene, mijalgije, mikoza, neuralgija, bolova, pareza i paraliza, virusnih, bakterijskih, parazitnih i gljivičnih infekcija, Pleurodynia (B33.0 Coxsackie B), septičnog šoka, uganuća, bolova u stomaku, stomatitisa, otoka, varikoza.
– u narodnoj medicini kod: alopecije, amenoreje, astme, bronhitisa, katara, climacteric, kondiloma, kašlja, peruti, dijareje, vrtoglavice, hidropsije, mamurluka, dismenoreje, ekcema, epilepsije, groznice, gljivičnih infekcija, gihta, glavobolje, Head Cold Heart hemoroida, promuklosti, hipotonije, histerije, induracija, infertiliteta – neplodnosti,, insomnije, Ischiosis leukoreje, nauzeje, nefroza, senilnosti,anksioznosti, neuroza, pareza i paraliza, poliurije, Pulmonosis, demencije, Sore upale grla, splenitisa, sinkope, napetosti, zubobolje, vertiga, bradavica, zastoja tečnosti, povreda,
– spoljašnja primena kod: (EOL) problema sa varenjem, u nezi kože glave i kose, u nezi usta, nezi kože, pojačava mentalnu aktivnost, ublažava stres, jača imuni sistem, ublažava bol, u aromaterapiji, u tretmanu astme i respiratornih tegoba, kod herpesa i polno prenosivih bolesti, …
– upotrebljava se kao: jak antispazmodik i pozitivni inotropik, antiinflamatik, aromatik, stomahik, karminativ, holagog, zatim kao analgesik, antiaging, antialzheimeran, antianafilaktik, antiarthritik, antiatherosclerotic antibakterik, antikancer, Anticapillary Fragility anticomplementary antikonvulzant, antiedemik, antigonadotropik, antiinflamatik, antimutagenik, antioksidant, antiprostaglandin, antiseptic, antivirotik, aperitiv, adstringent, kandidicid, kapillary Fragility karminativ, holagog, holeretik, CNS stimulant, COX-2 inhibitor, epileptigenik, fungicide, hepatoprotektiv, hiperemik, insekticid, insektifug, memorigenik, mIorelaksant, miostimulant, negativni hronotropik, negativni inotropik, nervin, parasiticid, fotosenzitiv, protisticide rubefacient, spasmogenik, stimulant, vulnerar. u narodnoj medicini abortifacient, antiholinesterase antiimplantation, antipiretik, cerebrotonik, kontraceptiv, detoksicant, dijaforetik, digestiv, diuretik, emenagog, sedativ, sterilant, stomahik, thymoleptik, tonik.
Etarsko ulje ruzmarina EO antispasmodic at 25 mg/kg. Major source of the COX-2 inhibitor, oleanolic acid, at 1%. EO antiseptic against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, molds, Corynebacteria, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, and Vibrio. Carnosol and ursolic acid inhibit many food spoilage microbes Escherichia, Kluyveromyces, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodotorula = BHA, BHT; carnosol > ursolic acid as antioxidant. Rosemary oil is effective against opportunistic infections like Cryptococcus neoformans. Rosemary oil as well as its bornyl acetate and cineole are antispasmodic, on smooth muscle (guinea pig ileum) and cardiac muscle (guinea pig atria). In smooth muscle, borneol is considered the most active, by antagonizing acetyl choline. The antispasmodic action of rosemary as preceded by contractile action, due to pinenes, which are spasmogenic on smooth muscle, inactive on cardiac muscle. Rosemary oil relaxes the Oddi’s sphincter contracted by morphine. Activity increases with incremental oil doses reaching an optimum at 25 mg/kg, at which the unblocking effect was immediate. Beyond that dosage, the response was again delayed. Smooth muscle stimulant and analgesic actions have been documented for a rosmaricine derivative.
Monografija nemačke E komisije (Commission E Monographs), terapijski vodič za biljne lekove, preporučuje Rosmarinus officinalis u tretmanu tegoba izazvanih dispepsijom, za tretman cirkulatornih i reumatskih problema.
Doziranje i način primene: Herbal preparations in liquid dosage forms for oral use. Herbal preparations in liquid dosage forms for cutaneous use.
do 2 mL (80 kapi) podeljeno u 2 do 4 doze.
Biljni preparati RUZMARIN HSS i TM:
pojedinačna doza: 0,5 – 1 mL,
maksimalna preporučena dnevna doza (MPDD): 2 mL.
Oralna upotreba: (15 minuta pre obroka) nerazblaženo pod jezik, zadržati minut-dva da serazblaži pljuvačkom pa progutati, ili razblažiti sa što manje tečnosti, procedura ista i lokalna primena.
Upotreba na koži: aplicirati na obolelo mesto u tankom sloju ili obliku impregniranog zavoja.
RUZMARIN EOL *(Etarsko ulje ruzmarina extra pure)
Isključivo za spoljnu upotrebu.
Napraviti pauzu posle 4 nedelje neprekidne upotrebe.
Po preporukama, preparat postiže najbolje efekte pri upotrebi od 8 do 12 nedelja, duža upotreba je bezbedna uz pauze.
Potrebna je pažljiva upotreba kod pacijenata sa visokim krvnim pritiskom.
preosetljivost na aktivne supstance,
preosetljivost na biljke porodice (genus Rosmarinus, family Lamiaceae).
Čuvanje: na tamnom, suvom i hladnom mestu do 20˚C, van domašaja dece i izlaganja EM zračenju, u dobro zatvorenoj originalnoj ambalaži.
Rok upotrebe: 5 godina, posle prvog otvaranja 6 meseci, ulje 2 godine. Uz preporučene mere čuvanja, rok trajanja neograničen.
Pakovanje:50 mL i 100 mL, standardne farmaceutske braon bočice;, 250 mL, 500 mL, 1000 mL i 5000 mL na zahtev.
RUZMARIN HSS i TM:
energetska vrednost u 100 mL: 1504 kJ/ 360 kcal,
u preporučenoj dnevnoj dozi (PDD) 2 mL: 30 kJ/ 7,17 kcal,
suve materije (DR) više od 1,0% (Ph.Fr. 2003),
RD D4/20 = 0,899
Indeks refrakcije nD20 =1,467
Optička rotacija = +8,0°
Bez dodatnih konzervanasa, proteina, masti i ugljenih hidrata.
Rukom rađen proizvod.
TINKTURA, RUZMARIN HSS, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušene biljke, DER 1:5,
HSS RSD 50 mL – 500,00 RSD, 100 mL – 1000,00 RSD, samo na zahtev, nema u standardnoj prodaji;
MATIČNA TINKTURA, RUZMARIN TM, hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sveže biljke, DER 1:2,
TM RSD 600,00/ 50 mL, 1200,00/ 100 mL,
ETARSKO ULJE, ekstra čisto (extra pure) RUZMARIN EOL,
RSD 10 mL – 400,00 RSD; 20 mL -,800,00 RSD; 30 mL – 1200,00 RSD; 50 mL – 2000,00 RSD; 100 mL – 4000,00 RSD.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae)
Rosemary How used GRAS Activities: 749 Chemicals w/Activities: 377 All Chemicals: 626
Activity: pesticide, antioxidant, Cancer-preventive, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, perfumery, flavor, insectifuge, fungicide, antiviral, antispasmodic, irritant, antiulcer, antiseptic, sedative, antitumor, allergenic, antimutagenic, analgesic, hypocholesterolemic, nematicide, antiradicular, aldose-reductase-inhibitor, antiedemic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antifeedant, expectorant, Candidicide, hipotensive, cytotoxic, antiHIV, herbicide, antihistaminic, anesthetic, antihepatotoxic, antiacetylcholinesterase, insecticide, antiherpetic, antiarthritic, antiallergic, anticataract, myorelaxant, antiaggregant, antidiabetic, antiacne, antistaphylococcic, choleretic, cardioprotective, Immunomodulator, apoptotic, anticariogenic, lipoxygenase-Inhibitor, trichomonicide, hypoglycemic, antiatherosclerotic, vasodilator, Calcium-antagonist, chemopreventive, anxiolytic, vasodilator, antiatherosclerotic, CNS-depressant, antiasthmatic, COX-2-Inhibitor, antiprostaglandin, antirheumatic, antileukemic, anticancer, antialzheimeran, antinociceptive, immunostimulant, antihypertensive, essential, carminative, antiosteoporotic, antimelanomic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, estrogenic,
Reference za gore navedeno:
Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.
Aloe Research Council – Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.
Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.
Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.
Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.
Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.
Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.
Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager’s Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X – The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95
Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.
Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095
Borchard, R. E., Barnes, C. D., and Eltherton, L. G. 1991. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals: A Handbook. (3rd Ed.) The Telford Press, Inc., P. O. Box 287, Caldwell NJ 07006.
Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.
Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia – A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.
Izvor: dr Duke, James A.
Podaci ažurirani septembra 2016.
Rosmarinus officinalis Urtinktur D1 – 20 ml
Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae)
Rosemary Leaf (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in the past for strengthening the memory and sharpening the senses, including vision, and to stimulate circulation to all parts of the body. It is believed to enhance good digestion, ease pain, and nervous anxiety, and may even be helpful in restoring the look and glow of your youth.
Used as a memory and brain stimulant, it is said to improve to brain function by feeding it with oxygen-rich blood. Recent studies suggest that rosemary may shield the brain from free radicals, lowering the risk of strokes and neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer’s and Lou Gehrig’s disease. It is believed to fight free radicals and has shown to be effective against malignant disease and anti-tumor activity.
This is a wonderful stimulant for the circulatory system and has been used to treat disorders characterized by chronic circulatory weakness, such as high and low blood pressure, varicose veins, bruises and sprains.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), is an effective aid to good digestion and a relaxant that gives strength and tone to the stomach, stimulate digestion, and relax the smooth muscle of the digestive tract, which helps to calm an upset stomach, ease cramps and spasms in the intestines, alleviate flatulence, dyspepsia, and relieve bloated feelings. It is also said to aid the digestive system of dietary fat and is thought to be particularly helpful in treating indigestion caused by anxiety.
It has been used for calming and soothing the nerves, relaxing the muscles, easing pain and reducing tension and anxiety throughout the body, and so it has been very helpful in treating stress, headache, migraines, depression, nervous exhaustion, and apathy. It is also believed to be effective in alleviating the pain of neuritis, neuralgia, tendonitis, rheumatism, aching joints and overall muscle pain and spasms.
Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) cleanses the blood and is potent enough to help kill a bacterial infection, but does not completely wipe out the natural bacterial population of the digestive tract that keeps the intestines in a healthy balance. As a diuretic, it increases the flow of urine that flushes bacteria from the body before they have a chance to cause infection. Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) has shown to be promising in treating toxic shock syndrome, and if used externally, its antiseptic qualities make it a good extract for gargles and mouthwashes and a cleanser for wounds.
The fungicidal properties of this herb have been effective in killing chronic yeast infections, such as Candida albicans. It also promotes menstruation and regulates its flow, and has been used for treating low or excessive bleeding, as well as, easing menstrual cramps and pain in the uterus. Because it stimulates and improves circulation it increases the blood supply to the skin, which is believed to help restore a healthy youthful glow, and when used externally, it is believed to stimulate hair bulbs and prevent baldness.
Ingredients: Rosemary Leaf, Structured Water, 96% Alcohol.
Non-Alcohol: Rosemary Leaf, Structured Water, Vegetable Glycerin.
All of our ingredients are Certified Organic, Kosher, or Responsibly Wildcrafted. No genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are involved. All other products that are distributed by us meet our high-quality standards.
Instructions: Use 10-20 drops in juice, water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 2-.4 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children.
Contraindications: Pregnant women should not use Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in therapeutic doses, as it is a uterine stimulant, and it should never be used continuously by women with a heavy menstrual flow. Rosemary should not be used in excessive amounts as it may produce convulsions. Rosemary should not be taken by those who suffer from seizure disorders or epilepsy. Some people may be allergic to Rosemary and other members of the mint family (sage, thyme, basil, etc.).
Disclaimer: The information presented herein by Herbal Alchemy is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own healthcare provider.
Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E
Latin Name: Rosmarinus officinalis
Pharmacopeial Name: Rosmarini folium
Other Names: garden rosemary
- Chemistry and Pharmacology
- Side Effects
- Use During Pregnancy and Lactation
- Interactions with Other Drugs
- Dosage and Administration
- Additional Resources
Rosemary is a bushy evergreen shrub, native to the Mediterranean basin and Portugal, now cultivated in France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco, South Africa, India, China, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and along the Crimean peninsula in Transcaucasia (Leung and Foster, 1996). The material of commerce comes from Spain, France, Morocco, and Tunisia (BHP, 1996; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994).
The modern approved indications for its use in Chinese, European and Indian medicines, as well as general unofficial use in dietary supplements in the United States, derive from traditional Greek medicine. Rosemary has been used in Europe since ancient times as a tonic, stimulant, and carminative to treat dyspepsia, headaches, and nervous tension (Leung and Foster, 1996). The ancient Greeks also used it to strengthen memory function; scholars wore garlands of rosemary during examinations in order to improve memory and concentration (Bown, 1995; Grieve, 1979). In China, rosemary preparations have been used for centuries for the same purposes as in traditional Greek medicine, especially to treat headaches (Leung and Foster, 1996). In India, rosemary leaf is used as a component in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines for flatulent dyspepsia associated with psychogenic tension and migraine headaches(Karnick, 1994; Nadkarni, 1976).
In Germany, rosemary leaf is licensed as a standard medicinal tea for internal and external use. Rosemary is taken internally as a carminative or stomachic component of gastrointestinal medicines in aqueous infusions, alcoholic fluidextracts, tinctures, and medicinal wine. The aqueous infusion and essential oil are also used in external preparations (e.g., bath additive, embrocation, liniment, ointment), for rheumatic diseases, and circulatory problems (Leung and Foster, 1996; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). In the United States,rosemary is a component of dietary supplement products, in aqueous infusion, alcoholic fluidextract, and tincture dosage forms. In both the United States and Germany, the leaf is used in balneotherapy and the essential oil is used in aromatherapy. Rosemary leaf was formerly official in the United States Pharmacopeia from 1820 until 1950 (Boyle, 1991).
The approved modern therapeutic applications for rosemary leaf are supportable based on its long history of use in well established systems of traditional medicine, in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies in animals, and on well documented phytochemical investigations.
Pharmacopeial grade rosemary leaf must contain not less than 1.2% volatile oil, not more than 10% brown woody stems, and not less than 15% water-soluble extractive, among other quantitative standards. Botanical identification requirements are carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) as well as by examination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics (BHP, 1996; DAC, 1986; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). The Commission E monograph also requires not less than 1.2% (v/w) volatile oil. The French Pharmacopoeia requires not less than 1.5% (v/m) volatile oil (Bruneton, 1995; Ph.Fr.X., 1990). The ESCOP monograph requires that the material must conform with the French Pharmacopoeia standards (ESCOP, 1997). The German Pharmacopoeia also includes a TLC identity test for the volatile oil fraction (DAB 10, 1991; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994).
Description Rosemary leaf consists of the fresh or dried leaf, gathered while flowering, of Rosmarinus officinalis L. [Fam. Lamiaceae] and its preparations in effective dosage. The preparation contains at least 1.2% (v/w) essential oil in the dried leaves.
Chemistry and Pharmacology Rosemary leaf contains phenolic acids (23% rosmarinic, chlorogenic, caffeic acids); phenolic diterpenoid bitter substances (up to 4.6% carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmanol); triterpenoid acids (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid); flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, nepetin, nepitrin); 1.22.5% volatile oil, of which 1550% is 1,8-cineole, 1525% a-pinene, 1224% a-terpineol, 1025% camphor, 510% camphene, 16% borneol, 15% bornyl acetate; and tannins (Bruneton, 1995; Budavari, 1996; ESCOP, 1997; Leung and Foster, 1996; Newall et al., 1996; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994).
The Commission E reported that in humans rosemary irritates the skin. It stimulates increased blood supply when applied externally. Experimentally, it has shown antispasmodic action on gall passages and small intestines, positive inotropic activity, and increased flow through the coronary artery.
The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported carminative and spasmolytic activity (BHP, 1996). A hydroalcoholic extract of rosemary showed cholagogic/choleretic properties in vivo in cannulated guinea pigs by producing a rapid increase of bile secretion (ESCOP, 1997; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). Antibacterial and spasmolytic actions have been documented (Newall et al., 1996). The Merck Index reported emmenagogic properties (Budavari, 1996).
Uses The Commission E approved the internal use of rosemary leaf for dyspeptic complaints and external use as supportive therapy for rheumatic diseases and circulatory problems.
ESCOP lists its internal use for improvement of hepatic and biliary function and in dyspeptic complaints and its external use as adjuvant therapy in rheumatic conditions, peripheral circulatory disorders, promotion of wound healing, and as a mild antiseptic (ESCOP, 1997). The German Standard License for rosemary leaf tea indicates its use internally for flatulence, feeling of distension, and mild cramp-like gastrointestinal and biliary upsets. Externally it is used in supportive treatment for rheumatism of the muscles and joints (Braun et al., 1997; Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). In traditional European medicine, rosemary has been used internally as a tonic, stimulant, and carminative to treat flatulent dyspepsia, stomach pains, headaches, and nervous tension (BHP, 1983; Leung and Foster, 1996; Newall et al., 1996).
Contraindications None known.
Side Effects None known.
Use During Pregnancy and Lactation Not recommended during pregnancy. No restrictions known during lactation (McGuffin et al., 1997).
Interactions with Other Drugs None known.
Dosage and Administration Unless otherwise prescribed: 4 – 6 g of cut leaf for infusions, powder, dry extracts, and other galenical preparations for internal and external use; 10-20 drops of essential oil.
[Ed. note: The essential oil dosage appears excessive and possibly unsafe. A more reasonable dosage for internal use would be 2 drops (1 ml).]
Infusion: 2 g in 150 ml water, three times daily.
Fluidextract 1:1 (g/ml): 2 ml, three times daily.
Tincture 1:5 (g/ml): 10 ml, three times daily.
Dry normalized extract 4.5-5.5:1 (w/w): 0.36-0.44 g, three times daily.
Rosemary wine: Macerate 20 g cut leaf in 1 liter wine for 1 to 5 days, stirring occasionally.
Bath additive: Decoct 50 g of leaf in 1 liter water, let stand covered for 15 to 30 minutes, strain, and add to one full bath.
Embrocation or fomentation: Saturate a cloth with hot semi-solid preparation containing 6-10% essential oil; fold and apply firmly for a moist-heat direct application to skin.
Ointment: Semi-solid preparation containing 6-10% essential oil in base of petroleum jelly or lanolin spread on linen for local application, applied as a liniment.
Bown, D. 1995. Encyclopedia of Herbs and Their Uses. New York: DK Publishing, Inc. 343.
Boyle, W. 1991. Official Herbs: Botanical Substances in the United States Pharmacopoeias 18201990. East Palestine, OH: Buckeye Naturopathic Press.
British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP). 1996. Exeter, U.K.: British Herbal Medicine Association. 162163.
. 1983. Keighley, U.K.: British Herbal Medicine Association.
Braun, R. et al. 1997. Standardzulassungen f r FertigarzneimittelText and Kommentar. Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag.
Bruneton, J. 1995. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. Paris: Lavoisier Publishing.
Budavari, S. (ed.). 1996. The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals, 12th ed. Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck & Co, Inc.
Deutsches Arzneibuch, 10th ed. (DAB 10). 19911996. (With subsequent supplements through 1996.) Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag.
Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex (DAC). 1986. Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag.
ESCOP. 1997. ‘Rosmarini folium.’ Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs. Exeter, U.K.: European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy.
Grieve, M. 1979. A Modern Herbal. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
Karnick, C.R. 1994. Pharmacopoeial Standards of Herbal Plants, Vol. 2. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications. 112.
Leung, A.Y. and S. Foster. 1996. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics,2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
McGuffin, M., C. Hobbs, R. Upton, A. Goldberg. 1997. American Herbal Product Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Nadkarni, K.M. 1976. Indian Materia Medica. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. 1074.
Newall, C.A., L.A. Anderson, J.D. Phillipson. 1996. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals.London: The Pharmaceutical Press.
Pharmacope Franaise Xe dition (Ph.Fr.X.). 19831990. Moulins-les-Metz: Maisonneuve S.A.
Wichtl, M. and N.G. Bisset (eds.). 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Stuttgart: Medpharm Scientific Publishers.
Braun, H. and D. Frohne. 1987. Heilpflanzenlexikon f r rzte und Apotheker. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.
British Pharmaceutical Codex (BPC). 1973. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.
Chadha, Y.R. et al. (eds.). 19521988. The Wealth of India (Raw Materials), Vols. 111. New Delhi: Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR.
Felter, H.W. and J.U. Lloyd. 1985. King’s American Dispensatory, Vols. 12. Portland, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications [reprint of 1898 original].
Food Chemicals Codex, 2nd ed.(FCC II).1972. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
Formack, V. and K.H. Kubeczka. 1982. Essential oils analysis by capillary gas chromatography and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 711.
Hnsel, R. 1991. Phytopharmaka, 2nd ed. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. 134, 214.
Hnsel, R., K. Keller, H. Rimpler, G. Schneider (eds.). 19921994. Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, 5thed. Vol. 46. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. 367384; 490503.
Hartke, K., H. Hartke, E. Mutschler, G. R cker, M. Wichtl (eds.). DAB 10Kommentar. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft.
Mongold, J.J. et al. 1991. Activit cholagogue/cholrtique d’un extrait lyophilis de Rosmarinus officinalis L. Plantes Md Phytothr 25:611.
Paris, R.R. and H. Moyse. 1971. Matire Medicale, Vol. 3. Paris: Masson et Cie. 277279.
Pharmacope Franaise Xe dition (Ph.Fr.X.). 19831990. Moulins-les-Metz: Maisonneuve S.A.
Pharmacopoeia Helvetica, 7th ed. Vol. 14.(Ph.Helv.VII). 1987. Bern: Office Central Fdral des Imprims et du Matriel.
Reynolds, J.E.F. (ed.). 1993. Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.
Rulffs, W. 1984. Rosmarinl-Badezusatz. Wirksamkeitsnachweis [Rosemary oil bath additive. Proof of effectiveness]. M nch Med Wschr 126(8):207208.
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Taddei, I., D. Giachetti, E. Taddei, P. Mantovani, E. Bianchi. 1988. Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59:463468.
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This material was adapted from The Complete German Commission E MonographsTherapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. M. Blumenthal, W.R. Busse, A. Goldberg, J. Gruenwald, T. Hall, C.W. Riggins, R.S. Rister (eds.) S. Klein and R.S. Rister (trans.). 1998. Austin: American Botanical Council; Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications.
1) The Overview section is new information.
2) Description, Chemistry and Pharmacology, Uses, Contraindications, Side Effects, Interactions with Other Drugs, and Dosage sections have been drawn from the original work. Additional information has been added in some or all of these sections, as noted with references.
3) The dosage for equivalent preparations (tea infusion, fluidextract, and tincture) have been provided based on the following example:
- Unless otherwise prescribed: 2 g per day of [powdered, crushed, cut or whole] [plant part]
- Infusion: 2 g in 150 ml of water
- Fluidextract 1:1 (g/ml): 2 ml
- Tincture 1:5 (g/ml): 10 ml
4) The References and Additional Resources sections are new sections. Additional Resources are not cited in the monograph but are included for research purposes.
This monograph, published by the Commission E in 1994, was modified based on new scientific research. It contains more extensive pharmacological and therapeutic information taken directly from the Commission E.
Excerpt from Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs
Copyright 2000 American Botanical Council
Published by Integrative Medicine Communications
Available from the American Botanical Council.
Effects of rosemary on cognitive function in an elderly population
Botanical: Rosmarinus officinalis (LINN.)
Family: N.O. Labiatae
—Medicinal Action and Uses—Tonic, astringent, diaphoretic, stimulant. Oil of Rosemary has the carminative properties of other volatile oils and is an excellent stomachic and nervine, curing many cases of headache.
It is employed principally, externally, as spiritus Rosmarini, in hair-lotions, for its odour and effect in stimulating the hair-bulbs to renewed activity and preventing premature baldness. An infusion of the dried plant (both leaves and flowers) combined with borax and used when cold, makes one of the best hairwashes known. It forms an effectual remedy for the prevention of scurf and dandruff.
The oil is also used externally as a rubefacient and is added to liniments as a fragrant stimulant. Hungary water, for outward application to renovate the vitality of paralysed limbs, was first invented for a Queen of Hungary, who was said to have been completely cured by its continued use. It was prepared by putting 1 1/2 lb. of fresh Rosemary tops in full flower into 1 gallon of spirits of wine, this was allowed to stand for four days and then distilled. Hungary water was also considered very efficacious against gout in the hands and feet, being rubbed into them vigorously.
A formula dated 1235, said to be in the handwriting of Elizabeth, Queen of Hungary, is said to be preserved in Vienna.
Rosemary Wine when taken in small quantities acts as a quieting cordial to a weak heart subject to palpitation, and relieves accompanying dropsy by stimulating the kidneys. It is made by chopping up sprigs of green Rosemary and pouring on them white wine, which is strained off after a few days and is then ready for use. By stimulating the brain and nervous system, it is a good remedy for headaches caused by feeble circulation.
The young tops, leaves and flowers can be made into an infusion, called Rosemary Tea, which, taken warm, is a good remedy for removing headache, colic, colds and nervous diseases, care being taken to prevent the escape of steam during its preparation. It will relieve nervous depression. A conserve, made by beating up the freshly gathered tops with three times their weight of sugar, is said to have the same effect.
A spirit of Rosemary may be used, in doses of 30 drops in water or on sugar, as an antispasmodic.
Rosemary and Coltsfoot leaves are considered good when rubbed together and smoked for asthma and other affections of the throat and lungs.
Rosemary is also one of the ingredients used in the preparation of Eau-de-Cologne.
—Preparations—Oil, 1/2 to 3 drops. Spirit, B.P., 5 to 20 drops.
Rosemary leaf (Rosmarini folium) Published November 30, 1985; Revised November 28, 1986, and March 13, 1990. List of German Commission E Monographs (Phytotherapy)
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent
Rosmarinus officinalis L.: an update review of its phytochemistry and biological activity