Cimet – Cinnamomum zeylanicum/ verum L. (Lauraceae)

Cimet – Cinnamomum zeylanicum/ verum L. (Lauraceae)

BILJNI PREPARATI CIMETA:

TINKTURA – hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušenog ploda, CIMET HSS HSS, DER 1:5 Ph.Eur.  i

MATIČNA TINKTURA – hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt svežeg ploda, CIMET TM, DER 1:10.  

 

Cinnamomi corticis tinctura 1:5 Ph.Eur.

Cinnamomi zeylanicii extractum ethanolicum liquidum DER 1:10.

BILJNI PREPARATI CIMETA:

TINKTURA – hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušenog ploda, CIMET HSS HSS, DER 1:5 Ph.Eur.  i

MATIČNA TINKTURA – hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt svežeg ploda, CIMET TM, DER 1:10.  

Cinnamomi corticis tinctura 1:5 Ph.Eur.

Cinnamomi zeylanicii extractum ethanolicum liquidum DER 1:10.

 

ATC:

A15 – stimulans apetita,

– antibakterik, stomahik,

– promoter motiliteta.

 

U skladu sa:

1) Based on Article 10a of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (well-established use), Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use), DIRECTIVE 2004/24/ECOF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 31 March 2004.

2) Eu. Ph. 08, od 01.07.2015. monografijom: 0387 Cinnamomi cortex, 1819 Cinnamomi corticis tincture,

3) EMA/HMPC/246774/2009, 10 May 2011: Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC)
Community herbal monograph on Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl, cortex (Final)

4) EMA/HMPC/246773/2009, 10 May 2011: Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC)
Assessment report on Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl, cortex and corticis aetheroleum (Final)
Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use)

5) Fr. Ph. ANSM: Cinnamomum verum ad praeparationes homoeopathicas
(Cannelier de Ceylan pour preparations homeopathiques).

 

a) Cinnamomum verum (zeylanicum), cortex (Cinnamon dried, ripe bark) method 1.1.10 (2371).

 

Biljni preparati u tečnom obliku (nerazblaženi ili razblaženi) za oralnu i lokalnu upotrebu.

 

Sastav:

a) tečni ekstrakt (DER 1:5), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% (v/v),

b) tečni ekstrakt (DER 1:10), ekstrakcioni rastvarač etanol 65% (v/v),

 

Cinnamomum verum (zeylanicum), sadrži 205 *(417) istraženih hemijskih jedinjenja koja ispoljavaju 581 *(636) dejstava *(podaci ažurirani avgusta 2016.)..

 

Sadržaj:

a) minimalno 0,015% m/m, eugenola (MF: C10H12O2, MW: 164,20108 g/mol−1),

b) u većoj koncentraciji sadrži benzaldehide, laurinsku i miristinsku kiselinu, seskviterpene,

c) više od svih biljaka sadrži benzil benzoata, tetradekane, aldehide, α i β-filandrene, trans-cinamaldehida,, (z)-ocimenola, eugenola, cinamil i eugenol acetata,

d) kora sadrži do 10,7 % vode.

 

Indikacije:

Biljni preparati su namenjeni poboljšanju opšteg stanja organizma kroz razna naučno dokazana dejstva.

Upotreba kod urogenitalnih, gastrointestinalnih, respiratornih i kožnih  tegoba, regulisanja prekomerne težine.

 

Dr. Džems Djuk (Dr. James Duke) u Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2nd Ed. (2002). CRC Press, navodi sledeće:

 

– ima jako dejstvo kod:

anoreksije, bronhitisa, bakterijskih infekcija, nazeba, kašlja, dispepsije, gastro i enterospazma, groznice, gasova, infekcija, faringitisa, stomatitisa

 

– delotvoran kod:

amenoreje i dismenoreje, astenije, krvarenja,  kandidijaze, kolere, kolika, grčeva, dijareje, enteritisa, glavobolje, HTA, leukemije, limfoma, mikoza, bolova, ulceracija, infekcija salmonelama, stafilokokama, ešerihijom, virusima, gljivicama, povraćanja, nadutosti, DM tip 1 i 2,

 

– u narodnoj medicini kod:

artroza, astme, amnezije, Ca.(abdomena, dojke, kolona, dijafragme, uva, bubrega, bešike, jetre, usta, rektuma, sinusa, slezine, želuca, uterusa, vrata, vagine), kondiloma, konjunktivitisa, dizenterije, dispneje, fistula, impotencije i frigidnosti, gastritisa, gingivitisa, halitusa, hepatitisa, insomnije, leukoreje, lumbaga, mastitisa, menoragije, nauzeje, nefritisa, neuroza, neuralgija, paraliza, psorijaze, reumatizma, sinuzitisa, spazama, splenitisa, sinkope, zubobolje, Tu, vaginitisa,  infekcije crvima, rana, bradavica, prolapsa, proktitisa, groznice, …

 

– spoljašnja primena (topikalno) kod:

bakterijskih i gljivičnih infekcija

 

– upotrebljava se kao:

jak antibakterik, karminativ, fungistatik, spazmolitik (antikolitik), holagog, antidijaroik, imunostimulator,  zatim kao alergenik, analgetik, anestetik, antiemetik, antihistaminik, antileukemik, antilimfomik, antioksidant, antiprostaglandinik, antipiretik, antiseptik, antispazmodik, antiulcer, antivirotik, adstrigent, kandidacid, karminativ, holeretik, citotoksik, estrogenik, ekspektorant, fungicid, hipotenziv, insektifug, larvicid, insekticid, lipolitik, mutagenik, miorelaksant, nematodecid, sialagog, teratogenik, vibriocid u tradicionalnoj medicini kao aperitiv, aromatik, inhibitor ciklooksigenaze i lipoksigenaze, depurativ, dijaforetik, emolijent, hemostatik, neurotonik, sedativ, stimulant, stomahik, uterorelaksant, tonik, uterotonik.

 

Monografija nemačke E komisije (Commission E Monographs), terapijski vodič za biljne lekove, preporučuje Cinnamomi ceylanici cortex za tretman gubitka apetita, dispeptične tegobe, spazme GIT-a, nadimanja i gasova..

 

Doziranje i način primene:

2 mL (80 kapi) podeljeno u 2 do 4 doze.

Biljni preparat CIMET HSS i TM:

pojedinačna doza: 0,5- 1,0 mL,

preporučena dnevna doza (PDD): 2 mL.

Oralna (sat vremena pre obroka) i lokalna primena.

Upotreba na koži: aplicirati na obolelo mesto u tankom sloju ili obliku impregniranog zavoja.

Napraviti pauzu posle 4 nedelje neprekidne upotrebe (oralna upotreba).

Po preporukama, preparat postiže najbolje efekte pri upotrebi od 8 do 12 nedelja, duža upotreba je bezbedna uz pauze.

 

Toksičnost eugenola je u količini od preko 2,5 mg/kg dnevno.

 

Kontraindikacije:

preosetljivost na aktivne supstance,

preosetljivost na biljke porodice (genus Cinnamomum, family Lauraceae).

 

Čuvanje:

na tamnom, suvom i hladnom mestu do 20˚C, van domašaja dece i izlaganja EM zračenju,  u dobro zatvorenoj originalnoj ambalaži.

 

Rok upotrebe:

5 godina, posle prvog otvaranja 6 meseci. 

 

Pakovanje:

50 mL i 100 mL, farmaceutske braon bočice standarno, 250 mL, 500 mL, 1L i 5 L na zahtev.

 

Nutritivne informacije:

CIMET HSS i TM:

energetska vrednost u 100 mL: 1504 kJ/ 360 kcal,

u preporučenoj dnevnoj dozi (PDD) 2  mL: 30 kJ/ 7,2 kcal,

suve materije (DR) više od 1,5% (Eur. Ph.).

Bez konzervanasa, proteina, masti i ugljenih hidrata.

 

CIMET HSS i TM su rukom rađeni proizvodi. 

CENOVNIK 

TINKTURA – hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt sušene kore, CIMET HSS, DER 1:5, 

RSD 750,00/ 50 mL, 1500,00/ 100 mL (Eur. Ph.) i

MATIČNA TINKTURA – hidroetanolni tečni ekstrakt svežeg ploda, CIMET TM, DER 1:10, 

RSD 600,00/ 50 mL, 1200,00/ 100 mL (Fr. Ph.).

NAPOMENA:

cejlonski cimet (Cinnamon zeylanicum/ verum L.) se razlikuje od ostalih vrsta (kineskog, kasija – Cinnamomum cassia; tajlandskog, …) koje mogu oštetiti jetru i bubrege.!!!

Cinnamon

Overview

Scientific names: Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Family: Laureaceae.

Common names: Cinnamon, cinnamomon, Ceylon cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, Chinese cassia, Saigon cinnamon.

Efficacy-safety rating:

Ò…Little or no evidence of efficacy.

Safety rating:

  • …Little exposure or very minor concerns.

What is Cinnamon?

Cinnamon plants have oval-lanceolate, rough-textured leaves approximately 7 to 20 cm in length. The spice is derived from the brown bark that forms quills with longitudinal striations. Cinnamon bark is available in ground form as a spice. The plant is native to Sri Lanka, southeastern India, Indonesia, South America, and the West Indies.

Slideshow: Fighting the Fight: Fibromylagia Explained

Fighting the Fight: Fibromylagia Explained

What is it used for?

Traditional/Ethnobotanical uses

Reports of cinnamon use date back to 2000 BC, when texts note the importation of cinnamon from China to Egypt. Cinnamon is also mentioned in the Bible, most often for its aromatic qualities. Cinnamon is primarily used as a spice, taste enhancer, or aromatic. Historically, cinnamon has been used to treat GI upset and dysmenorrhea disorders of microcirculation, among other broad-ranging uses. The essential oil derived from the plant has been used for its activity against various microorganisms and fungi.

General uses

Cinnamon is used as a spice and aromatic. Traditionally, the bark or oil has been used to combat microorganisms, diarrhea, and other GI disorders, and dysmenorrhea, although there is limited data to support these uses. Evidence is lacking to support the use of cinnamon in the management of diabetes. Research has focused on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity.

What is the recommended dosage?

Ground cinnamon is generally given at dosages of 1 to 1.5 g/day in studies of diabetes without reported adverse reactions.

How safe is it?

Contraindications

Contraindicated in people with known hypersensitivity to cinnamon or Peru Balsam. Other contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/nursing

Data are insufficient for adequate risk to benefit analysis. Generally recognized as safe when used as food.

Interactions

None well documented.

Side Effects

Heavy exposure may cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.

Toxicities

Information is lacking.

References

Cinnamon. Review of Natural Products. Facts & Comparisons 4.0. May 2009. Accessed May 5, 2009.

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health

Proffesional

Scientific

Name(s): Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees, Cinnamomum loureirii Nees. Family: Laureaceae.

Common Name(s): Cinnamon, cinnamomon, ceylon cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, Chinese cassia, Saigon cinnamon .

Uses

Cinnamon is used as a spice and aromatic. Traditionally, the bark or oil has been used to combat microorganisms, diarrhea, and other GI disorders, and dysmenorrhea, although there is limited data to support these uses. Evidence is lacking to support the use of cinnamon in the management of diabetes. Research has focused on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity.

Slideshow: Setting The Record Straight: Erectile Dysfunction

 Dosing

Ground cinnamon is generally given at dosages of 1 to 1.5 g/day in studies of diabetes without reported adverse reactions.

Contraindications

Contraindicated in people who are allergic to cinnamon or Peru balsam. Further contraindications have not yet been identified.

Pregnancy/Lactation

Data are insufficient for adequate risk-to-benefit analysis. Generally recognized as safe when used in food.

Interactions

None well documented.

Adverse Reactions

Heavy exposure may cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.

Toxicology

Information is lacking.

 Botany

Cinnamon plants have oval-lanceolate, rough-textured leaves approximately 7 to 20 cm in length. The spice is derived from the brown bark, which forms quills with longitudinal striations. Cinnamon bark available in ground form as a spice. The plant is native to Sri Lanka, southeastern India, Indonesia, South America, and the West Indies. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

History

Reports of cinnamon use date back to 2000 BC, when texts note the importation of cinnamon from China to Egypt. Cinnamon is also mentioned in the Bible, most often for its aromatic qualities. 5 Cinnamon is primarily used as a spice, taste enhancer, or aromatic. Historically, cinnamon has been used to treat GI upset and dysmenorrhea disorders of microcirculation, among other broad-ranging uses. 3 , 6 , 7 , 8 The essential oil derived from the plant has been used for its activity against various microorganisms and fungi. 3

Chemistry

The primary constituents of the essential oil are 65% to 80% cinnamaldehyde and lesser percentages of other phenols and terpenes, including eugenol, trans-cinnamic acid, hydroxycinnamaldehyde, o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol and its acetate, limonene, alpha-terpineol, tannins, mucilage, oligomeric procyanidins, and trace amounts of coumarin. 3 , 4

– verum differs in composition from C. cassia in eugenol and coumarin content. Coumarin is only found in cassia (0.45%). 5Varying sources of material and extraction techniques alter the chemical composition of the extracts, and may impact the intended medicinal and experimental effects. 69

Uses and Pharmacology

Diabetes
Animal data

In an experiment in which rats with induced diabetes were fed cinnamon via drinking water, no effect on blood glucose levels was shown. The researchers noted a significant decrease in platelet counts and a slight increase in hemoglobin in the rats. 10

Other researchers have isolated polyphenols from cinnamon that possess insulin-like activity and have demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in glucose utilization in animal muscle tissue. 8 ,11 , 12

Clinical data
A randomized clinical trial studying various dosages of cassia cinnamon powder (1, 3, or 6 g/day) over 40 days found a statistically and clinically significant improvement in blood glucose control among patients with type 2 diabetes. A reduction in cardiovascular risk factor biomarkers was also observed. 13 A second trial also found a significant reduction in fasting glucose levels at 3 g/day over 4 months, but no significant difference in the lipid profile. 14

Single bolus doses of cinnamon in healthy volunteers led to increased insulin sensitivity 15 and decreased postprandial blood glucose levels 16 in 2 small studies.

However, further clinical trials have been unable to replicate these positive findings in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes at dosages of cinnamon 1 to 1.5 g/day. 17 , 18 , 19 A meta-analysis of 5 trials 20 and systematic reviews 21 , 22 have found no significant effect on glycated hemoglobin (A1C), fasting blood glucose, or lipid profiles. Evidence is lacking to support the clinical use of cinnamon in the management of diabetes. Variables suggested to account for the differences in trial outcomes include differing concurrent therapies, degree of control of the condition, and differences of populations studied. 18 , 20

Antioxidant effect
Cinnamon extracts appear to exhibit antioxidant action, with an ethanol extract showing more effectiveness than an aqueous extract. 23 The relative antioxidant action of cinnamon has been evaluated against other herbs and spices, and against alpha-tocopherol. 5 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26

In an experiment to determine the wound healing action of an ethanol extract of cinnamon, researchers suggested the significant increase in wound healing was attributable to the antioxidant activity demonstrated. 27

Anti-inflammatory effect
A few laboratory experiments suggest anti-inflammatory action of certain chemical components in cinnamon. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits nitric oxide production implicated in the inflammatory disease process and also demonstrated inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis. 28 , 29 , 30

Antimicrobial activity
Conflicting evidence exists for the action of cinnamon on Helicobacter pylori . In a small clinical study no effect on H. pylori was observed at dosages of extract 80 mg/day, but the study may have been underpowered. 5 , 31 , 32 A laboratory study using H. pylori isolates from hospital patients was able to demonstrate inhibition of all isolates by a methylene chloride cinnamon extract. 33

Cinnamon extracts have been shown to exert in vitro activity against some common human pathogens, 1 as well as fungicidal activity against plant pathogens. 34 , 35 In vitro inhibition of bacterial endotoxin has been demonstrated by an unidentified component in cinnamon bark. 36The essential oils of cinnamon halted mycelial growth and aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus at a concentration of only 0.1%. 37

Other uses
Angiogenesis inhibition, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects have been demonstrated leading some researchers to suggest value in screening cinnamon for anticancer effects. 38 , 39 ,40 A stimulatory effect on human osteoblast cells has been demonstrated as well as some estrogenic activity. 41 A dose-dependent neuroprotective effect was demonstrated in rats with glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. 7

Dosage

Ground cinnamon generally has been given at dosages of 1 to 1.5 g/day in studies of diabetes 1317 , 18 , 19 and 80 mg/day in an ethanol extract in a study of activity against Helicobacter , without reported adverse reactions. 30

Pregnancy/Lactation

Data are insufficient for adequate risk-to-benefit analysis. Generally recognized as safe when used as food. Avoid dosages above those found in food because safety and efficacy are not proven. 42

Interactions

None well documented. Cinnamon was reported to interfere with tetracycline dissolution rates in a laboratory experiment. 2 A theoretical potentiation of antidiabetic agents exists. 5 , 22

Adverse Reactions

Cinnamon has been given Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status by the FDA. 5 At dosages of up to 6 g/day, no significant adverse reactions have been reported. 13 , 17 , 18 , 19Human consumption of large quantities of cinnamon bark or moderate quantities of cinnamon oil has been shown to increase heart rate, intestinal movement, breathing, and perspiration via a chemical stimulation of the vasomotor center. This state of accelerated body function is followed by a period of centralized sedation that includes sleepiness or depression. 3

Contact dermatitis has been reported after single exposure and repeated use of cinnamon-containing preparations. 43 , 44 , 45 An acute exacerbation of rosacea has been reported consequent to consumption of cinnamon oil pills. 21

Oral mucosal lesions have been reported, commonly associated with cinnamon-flavored chewing gum and candies, 5 , 46 , 47 and exposure to cinnamon oil has been cited as a risk factor for oral cancers. 48 , 49 , 50

Toxicology

Information is lacking. Teratogenicity in chick embryos has been reported in one study; in another, no evidence of teratogenicity in rats given a methanol extract of cinnamon was demonstrated. 1 A case report describes vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of consciousness in a child who consumed cinnamon oil 60 mL. 5

 

Bibliography

  1. USDA, NRCS. 2008. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

. Cortex cinnamomi. In: WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants . Vol 1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999.

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  4. He ZD, Qiao CF, Han QB, et al. Authentication and quantitative analysis on the chemical profile of cassia bark (cortex cinnamomi) by high-pressure liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem . 2005;53(7):2424-2428.
  5. Shimada Y, Goto H, Kogure T, et al. Extract prepared from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia Blume prevents glutamate-induced neuronal death in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Phytother Res . 2000;14(6):466-468.
  6. Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res . 2004;36(2):119-125.
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  8. Onderoglu S, Sozer S, Erbil KM, Ortac R, Lermioglu F. The evaluation of long-term effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats. J Pharm Pharmacol . 1999;51(11):1305-1312.
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  12. Mang B, Wolters M, Schmitt B, et al. Effects of a cinnamon extract on plasma glucose, HbA, and serum lipids in diabetes mellitus type 2. Eur J Clin Invest . 2006;36(5):340-344.
  13. Solomon TP, Blannin AK. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance. Diabetes Obes Metab . 2007;9(6):895-901.
  14. Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr . 2007;85(6):1552-1556.
  15. Vanschoonbeek K, Thomassen BJ, Senden JM, Wodzig WK, van Loon LJ. Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients. J Nutr . 2006;136(4):977-980.
  16. Blevins SM, Leyva MJ, Brown J, Wright J, Scofield RH, Aston CE. Effect of cinnamon on glucose and lipid levels in non insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care . 2007;30(9):2236-2237.
  17. Altschuler JA, Casella SJ, MacKenzie TA, Curtis KM. The effect of cinnamon on A1C among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care . 2007;30(4):813-816.
  18. Baker WL, Gutierrez-Williams G, White CM, Kluger J, Coleman CI. Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters. Diabetes Care . 2008;31(1):41-43.
  19. Campbell TM, Neems R, Moore J. Severe exacerbation of rosacea induced by cinnamon supplements. J Drugs Dermatol . 2008;7(6):586-587.
  20. Pham AQ, Kourlas H, Pham DQ. Cinnamon supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy . 2007;27(4):595-599.
  21. Lin CC, Wu SJ, Chang CH, Ng LT. Antioxidant activity of Cinnamomum cassia . Phytother Res . 2003;17(7):726-730.
  22. Lee KG, Shibamoto T. Determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices. J Agric Food Chem . 2002;50(17):4947-4952.
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  24. Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan Mohan Rao L, Sakariah KK. Volatile constituents from Cinnamomum zeylanicum fruit stalks and their antioxidant activities. J Agric Food Chem . 2003;51(15):4344-4348.
  25. Kamath JV, Rana AC, Chowdhury AR. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark. Phytother Res . 2003;17(8):970-972.
  26. Lee HS, Kim BS, Kim MK. Suppression effect of Cinnamomum cassia bark-derived component on nitric oxide synthase. J Agric Food Chem . 2002;50(26):7700-7703.
  27. Lee SH, Lee SY, Son DJ, et al. Inhibitory effect of 2′-hydroxycinnamaldehyde on nitric oxide production through inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in RAW 264.7 cells. Biochem Pharmacol . 2005;69(5):791-799.
  28. Huss U, Ringbom T, Perera P, Bohlin L, Vasänge M. Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay. J Nat Prod . 2002;65(11):1517-1521.
  29. Nir Y, Potasman I, Stermer E, Tabak M, Neeman I. Controlled trial of the effect of cinnamon extract on Heliobacter pylori . Helicobacter . 2000;5(2):94-97.
  30. Martin KW, Ernst E. Herbal medicines for treatment of bacterial infections: a review of controlled clinical trials. J Antimicrob Chemother . 2003;51(2):241-246.
  31. Tabak M, Armon R, Neeman I. Cinnamon extracts’ inhibitory effect on Helicobacter pylori . J Ethnopharmacol . 1999;67(3):269-277.
  32. Ranasinghe L, Jayawardena B, Abeywickrama K. Fungicidal activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L.) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr et L.M.Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana. Lett Appl Microbiol . 2002;35(3):208-211.
  33. Soliman KM, Badeaa RI. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem Toxicol . 2002;40(11):1669-1675.
  34. Azumi S, Tanimura A, Tanamoto K. A novel inhibitor of bacterial endotoxin derived from cinnamon bark. Biochem Biophys Res Commun . 1997;234(2):506-510.
  35. Tantaoui-Elaraki A, Beraoud L. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol . 1994;13(1):67-72.
  36. Kwon BM, Lee SH, Cho YK, So SH, Youn MR, Change SI. Synthesis and biological activity of cinnamaldehydes as angiogenesis inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett . 1997;7(19):2473-2476.
  37. Koh WS, Yoon SY, Kwon BM, Jeong TC, Nam KS, Han MY. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and modulates T-cell differentiation. Int J Immunopharmacol . 1998;20(11):643-660.
  38. Duessel S, Heuertz RM, Ezekiel UR. Growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells by plant compounds. Clin Lab Sci . 2008;21(3):151-157.
  39. Lee KH, Choi EM. Stimulatory effects of extract prepared from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia blume on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Phytother Res . 2006;20(11):952-960.
  40. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG . 2002;109(3):227-235.
  41. Meding B. Skin symptoms among workers in a spice factory. Contact Dermatitis . 1993;29(4):202-205.
  42. Sánchez-Pérez J, García-Díez A. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from eugenol, oil of cinnamon and oil of cloves in a physiotherapist. Contact Dermatitis . 1999;41(6):346-347.
  43. Hartmann K, Hunzelmann N. Allergic contact dermatitis from cinnamon as an odour-neutralizing agent in shoe insoles. Contact Dermatitis . 2004;50(4):253-254.
  44. Mihail RC. Oral leukoplakia caused by cinnamon food allergy. J Otolaryngol . 1992;21(5):366-367.
  45. Tremblay S, Avon SL. Contact allergy to cinnamon: case report. J Can Dent Assoc . 2008;74(5):445-461.
  46. Goldenberg D, Lee J, Koch WM, et al. Habitual risk factors for head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2004;131(6):986-993.
  47. Westra WH, McMurray JS, Califano J, Flint PW, Corio RL. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue associated with cinnamon gum use: a case report. Head Neck . 1998;20(5):430-433.
  48. Chase CK, McQueen CE. Cinnamon in diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm . 2007;64(10):1033-1035.

 

Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health

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Cinnamomum verum (Lauraceae) Common names Malabathron; Kayu manis; Tvach Bark; Cinnamon; Seylan Tarcini

 

upotreba reference
amenoreja ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
antiseptik Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.
artritis ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
astma
adstrigent Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.
Ca ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
Ca Hartwell, J.L. 1967-71. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.
Ca (uterus) Hartwell, J.L. 1967-71. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.
karminativ Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.
kolike
kašalj ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
dijareja
dijareja ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
ginekologik ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
srce ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
bubrezi ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
lumbago ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
pluća ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
ftiza
psorijaza
spazam ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
začin Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.
stimulant Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.
stomahik Steinmetz, E.F. 1957. codex Vegetabilis. Published by the author, Amsterdam.
Tu (abdomen) Hartwell, J.L. 1967-71. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.
vaginitis ANON. 1974. A barefoot doctor’s manual. DHEW Publication No. (NIH): 75-695.
bradavice Hartwell, J.L. 1967-71. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.
bradavice Hartwell, J.L. 1967-71. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.

Data by National Agricultural Library

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NON-PHARMACEUTICAL INTERVENTION OPTIONS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES: Diets and Dietary Supplements (Botanicals, Antioxidants, and Minerals)

Joseph L. Evans, Ph.D. and Miki Bahng, Ph.D.

Last Update: March 4, 2014.

INTRODUCTION

Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions throughout the world: 8.3% of adults – 382 million people have diabetes, and the number of people with the disease is set to rise beyond 592 million in less than 25 years (http://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/EN_6E_Atlas_Full_0.pdf). Furthermore, the prevalence of insulin resistance, a major causative factor in the early development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the insulin resistance syndrome (also known as the metabolic syndrome), is even more widespread [1-3]. Recent data (1999-2010) indicate that the prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome among US adults (≥20 years of age) is approximately 25% of the population [4]; the International Diabetes Federation has reported an identical figure for the worldwide prevalence in adults (http://www.idf.org/metabolic-syndrome).

This situation is further exacerbated by obesity, a major risk factor for developing T2D and cardiovascular disease. Results from the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), using measured heights and weights, indicate that an estimated 33.0% of U.S. adults aged 20 and over are overweight, 35.7% are obese, and 6.3% are extremely obese

(http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_adult_09_10/obesity_adult_09_10.pdf). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, 10% of men and 14% of women in the world were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), compared with 5% for men and 8% for women in 1980. An estimated 205 million men and 297 million women over the age of 20 were obese – a total of more than half a billion adults worldwide (http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/obesity_text/en/). Since dietary modification and increased physical activity provide insufficient glucose control over the long-term course of the disease, the vast majority of patients require some type of pharmacological intervention [5;6].

Pharmacological options for the management of T2D have been increasing, and will continue to do so [5;7;8], (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24278998).The cost of prescription medications may exceed the financial capacity of older citizens, those without adequate health insurance, and those living in poverty [9;10]. Certain ethnic groups who are at increased risk for developing diabetes (e.g. Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans), come from cultures with a long history of use of traditional medicines, and are likely to employ one or more folk (botanical) treatments rather than prescription medications [11-20]. Though a majority of diabetic patients are being treated, many are unable to achieve the current American Diabetes Association-recommended goal of HbA1c < 7%. For these reasons, it is appropriate to identify and evaluate adjunctive options in the light of available evidence, as to whether they are safe and to any extent effective. This presentation does not recommend or endorse their use. We emphasize that almost no data is available on long-term outcomes (safety or efficacy) with these agents or on their cost effectiveness.












Pakovanje mL/ g:
 10 20 30 50 100 250 500 1000

Količina:
1 2 3 više 

 

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