Nana pitoma (Mentha x piperita L.-Lamiaceae)
Nana (Mentha x piperita L.)
Nana – Mentha piperita
Narodna imena. Crna nana, ljuta nana, metva, metvica, paprena metva, paprena nana.
Botaničke karakteristike. Nana ili metvica je trajna zeljasta biljka sa podzemnim podankom iz koga rastu nadzemni i podzemni korenasti izbojci. Stabljika je uspravna ili polegnuta, getvorougaona, razgranata, često ljubičasta, a naraste do visine od 80 cm. Listovi imaju peteljke, nasuprotni su i ukršteni, jajasto kopljasti, crvenkasti, a na naličju vunasto dlakavi. Cvetovi su na drškama, uglavnom dvopolni, svetloljubičasti. Cveta od juna do avgusta. Plodove faktički i ne stvara, već se razmnožava vegetativnim putem. Cela biljka miriše.
Stanište. Gaji se kao kulturna biljka.Divlja nana raste na vlažnim mestima.
Upotrebljivi delovi biljke. Listovi i cela biljka.
Hemijski sastav. Glavna aktivna materija je eterično ulje koje se najviše sastoji od monoterpena mentola, mentona, mentilacetata, mentofurana, i dr. Osim toga listovi sadrže karotin, betain, organske kiseline. Nana sadrži i cink, selen, molibden , stroncijum.
Primena. Nana se koristi za umirenje živaca, nervnu rastrojenost, glavobolju, zujanje u ušima, histeriju i hipohondriju, groznicu, slabost i noćno znojenje. Otklanja vetrove, podrigivanje, povraćanje, grčeve u želucu i materici, pospešuje krvotok, utiče na izlučivanje žuči, mokraće i želudačnih sokova, leči prehladu, promuklost i kašalj.
Način upotrebe. Destilacijom se od nane proizvodi eterično ulje koje ima višestruku upotrebnu vrednost u lečenju raznih bolesti. Kod unutrašnje primene srednja dnevna doza iznosi 6-12 kapi, a za inhalaciju se uzima 3-4 kapi ulja. Čaj: dve do tri kašikice svežih listova ili suve biljke prelijemo vrućom vodom i ostavimo pokriveno 5-10 minuta. Čaj se pije između obroka 3-4 puta na dan. Čaj se koristi i za inhalacije. Tinktura: 20 g suve biljke prelijemo sa 100ml 70% etilalkohola. Uzima se 15-20 kapi.
London, 31 October 2007, Doc. Ref.: EMEA/HMPC/349466/2006: COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH ON Mentha x piperita L., AETHEROLEUM
London, 4 September 2008, Doc. Ref. EMEA/HMPC/349465/2006:
ASSESSMENT REPORT ON Mentha x piperita L., AETHEROLEUM
London, 4 September 2008, Doc. Ref. EMEA/HMPC/193909/2007, COMMITTEE ON HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS (HMPC):
COMMUNITY HERBAL MONOGRAPH ON Mentha x piperita L., foliumM
London, 4 September 2008, Doc. Ref. EMEA/HMPC/193910/2007: ASSESSMENT REPORT ON Mentha x piperita L., folium
COMMITTEE ON HERBAL MEDICINAL PRODUCTS
ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR HERBAL SUBSTANCE(S), HERBAL PREPARATION(S) OR COMBINATIONS THEREOF WITH TRADITIONAL USE Mentha x piperita L., folium
Peppermint – Mentha piperita (in the Lamiaceae or Mint family)
Part used: Leaf.
Taste/smell: Sweet, spicy, aromatic, cooling.
Tendencies: Cooling and drying.
Dosage: Infusion: 1 tablespoon per cup of water; or 1:1 fresh strength liquid extract: 10-30 drops 1-4 times per day.
Mental picture and specific indications: Peppermint is specific for spasmodic conditions of the respiratory, digestive and urinary tracts.
Use: (a) Antispasmodic, (b) Cholagogue, (c) Choleretic, (d) Carminative, (e) Mild disinfectant, (f) External analgesic, (g) Diaphoretic.
It is used for colic, flatulence, irritable bowel syndrome, general indigestion, nausea, vomiting, common cold and flu and desolution of gallstones. Topically, pepperment is applied to insect bites, stings and itchy skin in general. The spasmolytic effect appears to be due to its menthol, a calcium antagonist agent.
Contraindications: It is contraindicated in pregnancy due to the emmenagogue effect, acute gallstones due to the choleretic effect and hiatal hernias due to the relaxing effect on the lower esophageal sphincter. Peppermint is used in pregnancy under the guidance of qualified health care practitioners.
X X X X X X
Mentha x piperita (Lamiaceae)
Activities: 752 Chemicals w/Activities: 158 Chemicals: 297
Activity: Antibacterial, Cancer-Preventive, FLavor, Perfumery, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Fungicide, Antiinflammatory, ntispasmodic, Insectifuge, Allergenic, Irritant, Sedative, Nematicide, Antiulcer, Antitumor, Antiacetylcholinesterase, Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor, Antimutagenic, Hypocholesterolemic, Expectorant, Antiviral, Antiradicular, Insecticide, Analgesic, Candidicide, Antiarthritic, Cardioprotective, Antiallergic, Antidiabetic, Trichomonicide, Hepatoprotective, Diuretic, Antifeedant, Antiaggregant, Antihistaminic, Antiatherosclerotic, Antiacne, Herbicide, Chemopreventive, Choleretic, Anticataract, Hypotensive, Immunostimulant, Immunomodulator, Antirheumatic, Antiherpetic, Anesthetic, Vasodilator, Anticancer, Hypoglycemic, Antidepressant, Antistaphylococcic, Antiproliferant, Antihypertensive, Antiasthmatic, Calcium-Antagonist, Allelochemic, Anticariogenic, Antiparkinsonian, Antiedemic, Antiosteoporotic, Anxiolytic, Essential, Transdermal, Myorelaxant, Acaricide, Antidementia, Antimelanomic, Cytotoxic, arminative, Anticonvulsant, Antitumor (Colon), Antipyretic, Antitussive, Antihepatotoxic, Antitumor (Prostate), Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor, …
Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
Aloe Research Council – Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry
Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.
Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
Zheng, G-Q., Kenney, P.M., and Lam, L.K.T. Sesquiterpenes From Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) As Potential Anticarcinogenic Agents. Journal of Natural Products 55(7): 999-1003, 1992.
Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387
Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.
Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.
Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.
- Food Hyg. Soc. Jap. 33(6): 569.
Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington.
Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.
Yamamoto, A., Umemori, S., and Muranishi, S. 1993. Absorption Enhancement of Intrapulmonary Administered Insulin by Various Absorption Enhancers and Protease Inhibitors in Rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 46: 14-18, 1994.
Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.
Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
Merck 11th Edition
Zebovitz, T. C. Ed. 1989. Part VII. Flavor and Fragrance Substances, in Keith L. H. and Walters, D.B., eds. Compendium of Safety Data Sheets for Research and Industrial Chemicals. VCH Publishers, New York. 3560-4253.
Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.
Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.
Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.
Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.
Dr. Dzejms A. Djuk (Dr. James A. Duke)
HOMEOPATHIC MATERIA MEDICA
by William BOERICKE, M.D.
Presented by Médi-T
Stimulates the cold-perceiving nerves, so just after taking it, a current of air at the ordinary temperature seems cold. Marked action on respiratory organs and skin. Useful in gastrodynia, flatulent cold.
Abdomen.–Bloated, disturbing sleep. Infantile colic. Bilious colic with great accumulation of gas.
Respiration.–Voice husky. Tip of nose to touch. Throat dry and sore, as if pin crosswise in it. Dry cough, worse from air into larynx, tobacco smoke, fog, talking; with irritation in suprasternal fossa (Rumex). Trachea painful to touch.
Skin.–Every scratch becomes a sore. Itching of arm and hand when writing. Vaginal pruritus. Herpes zoster (Ars; Ran bulb).
Relationship.–Compare: Rumex; Laches; Mentha pulegium–European pennyroyal–(pain in bones of forehead and extremities). Mentha viridis-Spearmint–(scanty urine with frequent desire).
Dose.–Tincture, 1 to 20 drops, to thirtieth potency. Locally, in pruritus vaginć.
X X X X X X
April 29, 2014Add Commentby TF Allen | Print This Post Print This Post
Last modified on August 16th, 2018
Mentha Piperita homeopathy medicine – drug proving symptoms from Encyclopedia of Pure Materia Medica by TF Allen, published in 1874. It has contributions from R Hughes, C Hering, C Dunham, and A Lippe.
Common name: Peppermint.
Introduction Mentha piperita, Huds. Natural order: Labiatae. Preparation: Tincture of whole plant.
Mind Eager for work, and dispatches it quickly (soon). All my life, after rising earlier than usual in the morning, my head has felt heavy and my ideas have been confused for some time, so that I could scarcely study. Since this proving, I have been able to rise as early as I wished without misgiving, always finding that I had slept enough, even after going to bed late, and my mind clear and ready for work.
Head Confusion of the head (soon). Headache, beginning in the morning; tension towards both ears, especially the right (second day). No headache while in bed, but on rising to see what time it was, headache from one ear to the other; on returning to bed the pain ceased, but came back when I got up, at 7 o’clock (third day). Acute lancinations from ear to ear, on stooping or turning the head (third day). Frontal headache from one temple to the other, on waking at night (third day). Very sharp pain in the left temple when writing; it soon ceases (third day). The hair, which previously was falling out very fast, now stays in (twenty-second day).
Eye Flashes before the eyes when writing, although I had written but little (twenty-first day).
Ear All day when walking, shooting fro one ear to the other, as if abscesses were forming in them, especially in the left ear (second day). When writing, sharp lancinations in the left ear, which extend to all the teeth on that side (third day).
Nose Tip of nose sore to touch (eleventh day); swollen, but not painful (twenty-first day).
Mouth Very severe toothache in the lower molars, when chewing a bit of sugar; it soon passed off (third day).
Throat Throat dry and painful when swallowing, as if a pin were sticking crosswise in the pharynx (second day). Momentary lancinations in the parotid glands; the pains cease during breakfast and dinner (second day). When fingering the neck, it is painfully sensitive to touch (second day).
Stomach In the evening two hours after dinner, feeling of weight in the stomach, which seems to extend to the ears (second day).
Respiratory Organs The entire trachea, from the larynx to the pit of the throat, is painful to touch (second day). Husky voice from reading aloud (after five hours). Given to a singer a few hours before he is to sing, this remedy will certainly enable him to hold out to the end without straining his voice. Frequent cough (third day), Dry cough, excited by merely speaking; expectoration every morning of thick mucus like the core of a boil (fourth to eighth day). Dry cough continues; it is not caused by titillation, nor by mucous accumulations in the bronchi, but merely by the passage of air into the larynx (ninth day). The least feeling of cold excites a cough (eleventh to twenty first days). Cough still troublesome; excited by reading aloud, exposure to cold, tobacco- smoke, and smoke of all kinds (twenty-eighth to forty-sixth days). Cough still continues (third month).
Back and Neck All the muscles around the neck are painful to touch (third day).
Inferior Extremities Sensation under the right foot, at the extremity of the metatarsus, as if the shoe-sole was too thick at that place, and made walking painful (twenty-eighth to forty-sixth days).
Skin Liability of the skin to inflammation; every scratch becomes a sore (eleventh to twenty-first days). Pimple, with much itching, near left ear, with heat of the part; in the evening (ninth day). Formication in the arm and hand when writing (twenty-first day). Frequent itching behind the lobe of the right ear, compelling to scratch (eleventh to twenty-first days).
Sleep Good sleep (after five hours). Sleep good, refreshing, and quite. Wakes very early in the morning (third day).
Conditions Aggravation (Cold air), Cough. (Rising from bed), Headache. (smoke), Cough. (Stooping), Pain from ear to ear. (Turning head), Pain from ear to ear. (Writing), Pain in temple; flashes before eyes; pain in ear.
Amelioration (During a meal), Pain in parotid glands.
X X X X X X
Mentha piperita Natural History. Mentha piperita.Peppermint.
N. O. Labiate. Tincture of whole plant.
Dilutions of essence.
Voice, weakness of.
A remarkable proving of Menth. pip. Was made by Demeures, who took a single drop of the tincture, the effects of which lasted into the third month.
A case of fatal poisoning with the essence is on record.
The patient, a boy of six, took between 1 and 2 ounces and died in two hours.
When seen he was insensible, eyes fixed, pupils unmovable, stertorous breathing, cold skin, lips livid.
The most remarkable symptom of the proving was the cough, and this has been fully confirmed.
It was a dry cough, excited by air entering larynx, by reading aloud, by exposure to cold, by shocks of any kind.
Demeures says he cured with Menth. pip. every case of influenza that came under his care in the winter of 1847-8.
„It is to dry cough, however caused, what Arn. is to injuries and Aco. to inflammatory complaints.
It relieves even the cough of consumptives.“ A single globule of the 30th sufficed.
Demeures gave it to singers a short time before singing, and it greatly helped them to hold the voice.
After the proving Demeures found that he could rise earlier than usual and yet feel bright and fresh, whereas before it he could not.
Gibson Miller (f. of Hcs., v. 34) relates this case: Teacher, 43, since whooping-cough in boyhood had a dry, spasmodic cough, worse in cold weather.
The inhalation of the smallest quantity of smoke, either of coal, wood, or tobacco, at once induced a most distressing paroxysm.
Worse By the least breath of air or any fog.
Scarcely any expectoration.
Husky on attempting to sing.
Menth. pip. 30 completely removed the cough and enabled him to sit in a room full of tobacco smoke and sing with clearness.
Hansen commends it in – Bilious colic with great accumulation of gas, severe pain of shingles, and as an external remedy in pruritus vagina.
The symptoms were worse rising better, lying down in bed.
Better While eating. Worse Cold air, smoke, reading aloud, stooping, turning head, writing.
Relations. Compare: The Labiate. Worse From smoke, Ign. worse Fog, Hyper. worse Rising, better lying down, Bry. Worse Cold air, Rumex c.
Causation. Early rising.
Mind. Eager for work, despatches it quickly.
(Cured mental dulness, which previously always followed early rising.) – Insensible.
Headache: tension towards both ears, worse on rising, better returning to bed.
Acute lancinations from ear to head, on stooping or turning head.
Frontal headache from one temple to the other.
(Hair ceases to fall out.)
Eyes. Flashes before eyes when writing.
Ears. All day when walking, shooting from one ear to the other, as if abscesses were forming, worse left
When writing sharp lancinations extend from left ear to all left teeth.
Nose. Tip of nose sore to touch (11 th d.), swollen but not painful (21st d.)
Mouth. Very severe toothache in lower molars when chewing a bit of sugar.
Throat. Throat dry and painful on swallowing, as if a pin stuck crosswise in pharynx.
Momentary lancinations in parotids, better during breakfast and dinner.
Throat externally painfully sensitive to touch.
Stomach. In evening two hours after dinner, weight in stomach which seems to extend to ears.
Respiratory Organs. Entire trachea from larynx to pit of throat painful to touch.
Husky voice from reading aloud.
(Given to a singer a few hours before he is to sing, this remedy will certainly enable him to hold out to the end without straining his voice.) – Frequent cough. Dry cough, excited by merely speaking, expectoration every morning of thick mucus like the core of a boil (4th to 8th d.).
Dry cough continues, it is not caused by titillation, nor by mucous accumulations in the bronchi, but merely by the passage of air into the larynx (9th d.).
Least feeling of cold excites a cough (11th to 21st d.), reading aloud, tobacco smoke and smoke of all kinds excites it.
Neck and Back. All muscles round neck are painful to touch.
Lower Limbs. Sensation under right foot at extremity of metatarsus, as if shoe sole was too tight there.
Skin. Every scratch becomes a sore.
Pimples with much itching near left ear, with heat in part.
Frequent itching behind right ear.
Formication in arm and hand when writing.
Sleep. Sleep good, refreshing.
Plante ornementale ou condimentaire, la menthe fait aussi partie de l’histoire de la phytothérapie. Elle est réputée pour ses capacités à relâcher les muscles, à traiter les problèmes digestifs et pour ses vertus antiseptiques et tonifiantes. Elle stimule aussi la sécrétion biliaire et la transpiration.
mentheNom scientifique : Mentha
Nom commun: menthe
Noms anglais: mentha , mint
Classification botanique: famille des lamiacées ( lamiaceae )
Formes et préparations: séchage, comprimés, gélules, bonbons, huiles, pommades, lotions, infusions, teintures, décoctions
Propriétés médicinales de la menthe
UTILISATION INTERNE Troubles digestifs : efficace en cas de constipation ou de diarrhée. Troubles urinaires : effet diurétique. Toux et rhume : apaisante.
UTILISATION EXTERNE Antidouleur : douleurs articulaires, musculaires et maux de tête. Problèmes respiratoires : efficace contre les affections similaires aux bronchites. Contre des affections de la peau : soulage les douleurs liées aux piqûres d’insectes et d’animaux et prévient la formation de crevasses.
INDICATIONS THÉRAPEUTIQUES USUELLES Troubles digestifs (digestion difficile, ballonnements, flatulences), inflammation du système respiratoire, douleurs articulaires, musculaires ou maux de tête. Démangeaisons cutanées ou infection buccale.
AUTRES INDICATIONS THÉRAPEUTIQUES DÉMONTRÉES Prévention des inflammations cutanées de tous les types, même l’eczéma. Stimule la production de sucs digestifs et de la vésicule biliaire. Elle est efficace lors des épisodes de gastro-entérite et contre les douleurs névralgiques. Elle a également des effets tonifiants.
Histoire de l’utilisation de la menthe en phytothérapie La menthe est l’une des plantes médicinales les plus connues. Les archéologues ont retrouvé des feuilles de menthe dans des tombes égyptiennes. Son usage est avéré chez les Grecs et les Romains pour soulager la douleur ou purger les malades. Tombée dans l’oubli en Occident, elle ne rejoint la pharmacopée traditionnelle qu’au XVIIIe siècle. Depuis lors, elle a été l’une des premières plantes à être utilisées de manière intensive par l’industrie pharmaceutique. Le menthol est ainsi devenu un des classiques des étals de pharmacie. On retrouve aussi la menthe dans un grand nombre de bonbons, sirops ou comme une saveur destinée à améliorer le goût de certains médicaments.
Description botanique de la menthe La menthe est une plante très aromatique pouvant atteindre 80 cm de haut. Elle appartient à la famille des lamiacées. Sa variété la plus utilisée en phytothérapie est la menthe poivrée. Elle présente une structure serratifoliée à tiges carrées. Sa couleur est verte et sa récolte se réalise de manière annuelle. Elle se sème au printemps et se récolte en été. On la trouve en Europe, en Asie et en Amérique du Nord.
Composition de la menthe
PARTIES UTILISÉES On travaille communément avec la partie aérienne de la plante en phytothérapie. Pour des infections de type gastro-entérite, la plante entière peut être utilisée.
PRINCIPES ACTIFS L’huile essentielle représente 1,5% de la plante. Les composés les plus utilisés sont le menthol (entre 35 et 55% de celle-ci) et la menthone (10 à 40%).
La préparation de la menthe permet d’obtenir des flavonoïdes (lutéolme, menthoside), ainsi que des phénols et des triterpènes. La plante contient des enzymes (oxydase et peroxydase), de la vitamine C et des acides divers (caféique, chlorogénique, férulique, fumarique).
Utilisation et posologie de la menthe
DOSAGE La menthe est souvent proposée sous forme de préparations industrielles ou artisanales. On peut citer les gélules, les lotions, les crèmes à base de menthol, la teinture ou les huiles essentielles. Pour ces dernières, on préconise généralement trois prises quotidiennes de 2 à 4 gouttes. Pour la teinture (à 45%), ce sont 2 à 5 ml à la même fréquence qu’il faut utiliser.
Pour les préparations maison:
– En infusion : une cuillère à soupe de feuilles pour 150 ml d’eau bouillante. Pour un litre d’eau, peser 15 g de feuilles. Laisser bouillir dix minutes et prendre 3 à 4 tasses par jour.
– En gargarisme : 50 g de feuilles séchées pour un litre d’eau et laisser bouillir durant dix minutes.
Précautions d’emploi de la menthe En usage interne, il ne faut pas administrer de menthe aux enfants de moins de 5 ans. Quant à l’huile essentielle, son utilisation doit faire suite à une prescription médicale. Il est important de ne pas la donner aux enfants de moins de 12 ans et aux femmes enceintes ou durant l’allaitement. Pour un usage externe, il faut vérifier que la peau ne présente pas de lésions ou d’inflammations. Eviter les applications trop proches des voies respiratoires, du fait des risques de spasmes.
CONTRE-INDICATIONS La menthe est à proscrire chez les personnes souffrant de la vésicule biliaire, tout comme chez les patients ayant souffert de troubles hépatiques graves. Il en va de même pour les personnes sujettes à l’ hypertension.
EFFETS INDÉSIRABLES En usage interne, la menthe, consommée à haute dose, peut provoquer des troubles intestinaux et des céphalées. Des risques d’hypertension ont également été signalés, ainsi que la mort par action sur le bulbe rachidien.
INTERACTIONS AVEC DES PLANTES MÉDICINALES OU DES COMPLÉMENTS
Pas d’interaction connue.
INTERACTIONS AVEC DES MÉDICAMENTS Les dangers connus de la menthe résultent de la limitation des effets de certains médicaments pour le coeur (inhibiteurs calciques). Elle bloque également l’élimination de toute une gamme de médicaments. Le danger provient de la difficile compréhension de ce phénomène à l’heure actuelle.
Avis du médecin
DES BIENFAITS RECONNUS La menthe est une plante efficace pour lutter contre les flatulences ou l’intestin irritable. Elle est aussi reconnue pour son efficacité en inhalations, lors des épisodes de toux ou les rhumes. Utilisée par voie cutanée, elle permet de réduire les douleurs musculaires, les maux de tête et de lutter contre les petites démangeaisons (piqûres de moustique, eczéma, etc.).
AVERTISSEMENT Si l’administration de tisanes ne représente a priori aucun danger (sauf chez l’enfant de moins de 4 ans), l’utilisation des huiles essentielles doit se faire avec plus de précautions, en suivant les recommandations d’un médecin. Lors d’une utilisation cutanée, l’huile essentielle doit être diluée dans une autre huile végétale pour éviter les risques de “ brûlures“.
La recherche sur la menthe La menthe étant l’une des plantes médicinales les plus utilisées, elle a déjà largement été étudiée. Néanmoins, des recherches portent sur son action dans le soulagement des troubles intestinaux et l’efficacité de ses effets diurétiques. Les scientifiques cherchent également à comprendre la cause exacte de son interaction avec la plupart des médicaments, empêchant l’élimination de ceux-ci.
Sources: European Scientific Cooperativeon Phytotherapy (ESCOP).
Agence nationale du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM). Liste A des plantes médicinales utilisées traditionnellement. Pharmacopée 2012.
Plantes médicinales et médicaments à base de plantes. Le journal de l’Ordre national des pharmaciens, No 4, juin 2011.
American pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium)
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Aloe herbal horse spray, alpha-pinene, American pennyroyal, beta-pinene, brotherwort, chasse-puces, churchwort, Cunila pulegioides, dictamne de Virginie, European pennyroyal, fleabane, flea mint, fretillet, Hedeoma phlebitides, hedeomal, herbal horsespray, herbe aux puces, herbe de Saint-Laurent, Labiatae (family), la menthe pouliot (French), Lamiacae (family), lurk-in-the-ditch, Melissa pulegioides, mentha pouillot, menthone, Miracle Coat spray-on dog shampoo, mock pennyroyal, mosquito plant, Old World pennyroyal, paraffins, pennyroyal essential oil, petit baume, piliolerial, piperitenone, poley, pouliot royal, pudding herb, pudding grass, pulegium, pulegium oil, Pulegium vulgare, pulegone, pulioll-royall, Pulegium regium, run-by-the-ground, squaw balm, squawmint, stinking balm, tannins, terpenes (pulegone), tickweed.
Combination product example: PNC (contains pennyroyal, red raspberry, lobelia, blue cohosh, black cohosh, and blessed thistle).
Mechanism of Action
- Constituents: Constituents of the aerial parts of pennyroyal that are highly concentrated in the essential oil include hedeomal, tannins, terpenes (pulegone), alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, 3-octanone, p-cymene, 3-octylacetate, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylcyclohexanone, menthone, piperitenone, and paraffins.
- Genitourinary effects: Traditionally, pennyroyal has been considered to be an abortifacient. Anecdotal evidence and one case report suggest that the essential oil of pennyroyal may function as an abortifacient and emmenagogue. However, it typically does so at lethal or near-lethal doses, making this action unpredictable, dangerous, and not recommended. Future research to determine the safety and efficacy of the less toxic aerial parts of the pennyroyal plant on the menstrual cycle is needed before a recommendation can be made. The mechanism of action is unclear.
- Hepatic effects: Pulegone, the constituent terpene of the volatile oil of pennyroyal, has been shown to be toxic to the urinary tract and kidneys.1 Menthofuran is a mammalian metabolite of pulegone and may account for some of the hepatotoxic effects.3,4 Pulegone and menthofuran may deplete cellular glutathione levels, leaving hepatocytes vulnerable to free radical damage.5
- Neurologic/CNS effects: Based on tradition, pennyroyal essential oil may have epileptogenic properties. Burkhard et al. surveyed the literature and found 11 plants to be powerful convulsants (eucalyptus, fennel, hyssop, pennyroyal, rosemary, sage, savin, tansy, thuja, turpentine, and wormwood), due to their content of highly reactive monoterpene ketones, such as camphor, pinocamphone, thujone, cineole, pulegone, sabinylacetate, and fenchone.6
- Elimination/half-life: The toxic properties of the pennyroyal constituent pulegone appear to follow first order kinetics.1 In rats given a 150mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of pulegone, a terminal half-life of 2.08 + 0.29 and a Cmax of 7.02 + 1.15mcg/mL was found.7
- Excretion: Pennyroyal oil is reported to be excreted by the kidney following oral ingestion.8
- In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the pennyroyal constituent pulegone diminishes the function of rat liver cytochrome P450 in an irreversible, time-dependent fashion.1 In vitro and in vivo research suggests that the pulegone metabolite menthofuran is a potent inhibitor of human liver CYP2A62, and it may account for a significant degree of pennyroyal’s hepatotoxic effects3,4. Pulegone and menthofuran may deplete cellular glutathione levels, leaving hepatocytes vulnerable to free radical damage.5
- Madyastha P, Moorthy B, Vaidyanathan CS, and et al. In vivo and in vitro destruction of rat liver cytochrome P-450 by a monoterpene ketone, pulegone. Biochem Biophysl Res Comm1985;128(2):921-927.
- Khojasteh-Bakht, S. C., Koenigs, L. L., Peter, R. M., Trager, W. F., and Nelson, S. D. (R)-(+)-Menthofuran is a potent, mechanism-based inactivator of human liver cytochrome P450 2A6. Drug Metab Dispos1998;26(7):701-704. 9660853
- Gordon, W. P., Huitric, A. C., Seth, C. L., McClanahan, R. H., and Nelson, S. D. The metabolism of the abortifacient terpene, (R)-(+)-pulegone, to a proximate toxin, menthofuran. Drug Metab Dispos1987;15(5):589-594. 2891472
- Thomassen, D., Pearson, P. G., Slattery, J. T., and Nelson, S. D. Partial characterization of biliary metabolites of pulegone by tandem mass spectrometry. Detection of glucuronide, glutathione, and glutathionyl glucuronide conjugates. Drug Metab Dispos1991;19(5):997-1003. 1686249
- Thomassen, D., Slattery, J. T., and Nelson, S. D. Menthofuran-dependent and independent aspects of pulegone hepatotoxicity: roles of glutathione. J Pharmacol Exp Ther1990;253(2):567-572. 2338648
- Burkhard, P. R., Burkhardt, K., Haenggeli, C. A., and Landis, T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem.J Neurol 1999;246(8):667-670. 10460442
- Thomassen, D., Slattery, J. T., and Nelson, S. D. Contribution of menthofuran to the hepatotoxicity of pulegone: assessment based on matched area under the curve and on matched time course. J Pharmacol Exp Ther1988;244(3):825-829. 3252034
- Briggs CJ. Pennyroyal: A traditional medicinal herb with toxic potential. Canad Pharm J1989;122:369-372.
– See more at: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/nutrition-research/learning-center/plant-profiler/mentha-pulegium.html#sthash.JMQYbIG5.dpuf
Peppermint Leaf (Mentha piperita)
Peppermint Leaf Tinctures-Liquid Herbal Extracts & Herbal Benefits
Mentha piperita is one of nature’s oldest home remedies for gas, nausea, heartburn, cramping, bloating, flatulence, hiccups, stomachaches, and other digestive problems. And while Mentha piperita may reduce irritable bowel syndrome, it cleanses the body, purifies the blood and clears skin disorders such as acne as well. Refreshing mint leaves also help to reduce nausea and when applied topically, headaches will also be reduced. It has been found to be very effective relief of respiratory congestion by opening up the nose, lungs, and throat, and may also help to overcome coughs and colds. The use of Mentha piperita leaf on a regular basis can help people with asthma because it can provide relaxation and help to relieve breathing problems. Mentha piperita has been used in face masks, as well as for fighting infections of the skin, rashes and bug bites. Mentha piperita leaf tincture may be added to a gargle and mouthwash for its ability to override germs and inhibit the growth of bacteria in the mouth. It is no wonder the mouth and breath can always feel fresh with the routine use of this herb. According to recent studies, some of the enzymes found in mint leaves can be helpful for those who are fighting cancer. Since mint leaves purify the blood, and the anti-spasmodic effects soothe muscles of our body, it is a great remedy for relieving the pain of menstrual cramps. Due to the effects on the stomach, it is also a great remedy for expectant mothers who suffer from morning sickness.
Mentha piperita herb is an excellent source of minerals like calcium, copper, manganese, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help control blood pressure and heart rate. The other minerals work as co-factors for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. It is also rich in many antioxidant vitamins, including vitamin C and E, vitamin A, beta-carotene, important B-complex vitamins like folate, vitamin K, B-6 (pyridoxine), and riboflavin. Another amazing health benefit of the Peppermint plant extracts is that it contains rosmarinic acid. This antioxidant may help to stop cell damage that is caused by free radicals. It also helps to block the leukotrienes, that trigger inflammation, and other allergic symptoms.
Rosmarinic acid also helps to stimulate cells called prostacyclins, that help to keep an asthma sufferer’s airway passages open so that it makes it easier to breathe. It is actually believed to be a natural remedy for the common cold, as it may help to kill bacteria and viruses. The menthol in the leaves thins mucus and eliminates phlegm, providing relief from coughs and congestion. It is often used in rubs on the chest for aches and pains during cold and flu, and for its calming and numbing effect. Mentha piperita is a stimulant and acts more powerfully on the system, more than any liquor, bringing back to the body its natural warmth and glow. It is found to be helpful in cases of sudden fainting or dizziness with extreme coldness and pale countenance and is useful in alleviating chills and the symptoms of colds, flu, and rheumatism, especially in winter.
Mentha piperita leaves may have the potential to stop the growth of different bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori, causing ulcers, and Salmonella enteritidis and possibly Staphylococcus (MRSA). They may also be an effective treatment for infantile colic. Studies have shown that Mentha piperita lessens the amount of time food spends in the stomach by stimulating the gastric lining, so it helps to digest food before passing into the intestines and colon. Peppermint is used to calm a queasy stomach and is good for nausea and vomiting, and it is useful for calming the lower bowel, and in relieving diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome.
It has also been found to be effective for loss of appetite, indigestion, colonic muscle spasms, dyspepsia, motion sickness and for weight loss. Mentha piperita leaf tincture may help support healthy liver function by improving the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder. This helps positively for the digestion by helping to break down fats and reduce bad cholesterol. Decreased cholesterol levels help to reduce the workload required by the liver, and if yours is sluggish this herb may provide a needed boost.
Interest in Mentha piperita leaf extracts has extended beyond the digestive tract. Perillyl alcohol is a phytonutrient called a monoterpene, and it’s plentiful in Mentha piperita. In animal studies, this nutrient has been shown to stop the growth of pancreatic, mammary, lung, rectum and liver tumors. It has also been shown to protect against free radicals that cause damage to the cells and cancer formation. These animal-based studies are not yet matched by equally sound human studies, however.
Since Mentha piperita leaves purify the blood and have an anti-spasmodic and soothing effect on the muscles of the body, it is helpful in relieving the pain of menstrual cramps. It also aids in anxiety and nervous agitation which can be symptoms of PMS. In aromatherapy, Mint extract is used to beat stress and rejuvenate the mind. It helps to relax the body and calm the mind, freeing it from stress. It is shown to help release a small amount of serotonin in the brain that also helps to beat depression. Mentha piperita has a calming effect on the entire body and may be helpful for insomnia. And for headaches, some people have found it to be effective when accompanied by a short nap.
The herb also makes a fine mouthwash and is a wonderful remedy for bad breath. The leaves are packed with anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties which are great for your oral health. By killing bacteria in the mouth, it may help to prevent tooth decay and keeps your tongue and teeth clean naturally. Mentha piperita has actually been shown to be superior to the mouthwash chemical chlorhexidine, in inhibiting the formation of biofilm linked to dental cavities. It has also been tested for its positive effects on mouth sores and Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1).
According to researchers from the University of Cincinnati, just taking a whiff of this herb helps people who are to concentrate and do better on tasks that require sustained concentration. Other studies indicated that Peppermint could enhance athletic performance, as well. Used externally it makes a soothing rub that can relieve muscular tension, sore muscles and the pain of strains. For topically treating migraines, facial neuralgia, rheumatic and muscular aches, gently massage the affected areas with the extract in oil, and its anesthetic qualities will give a cooling, numbing sensation.
Mentha piperita liquid extracts can be added to a bath or to a lotion after a shower to help with stress and pain and to help you feel energized again. The tincture has also been used in hair and skin care. When used in an oil it can be massaged into the scalp to help remove dandruff. Additionally, it has been used to treat head lice. Due to their healthy combination of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, Peppermint leaves may help to promote hair health and growth. Its soothing effects on the skin, in topical creams, helps tone the skin, minimize pores, reduce swelling and restores skin elasticity. Vitamins A and C are powerful for fighting inflammation which appears in the form of red marks on the skin, and other properties of the herb help to brighten the complexion. Mentha piperita leaf extracts are also used in creams for treating a variety of skin issues including hives, rashes, poison oak or poison ivy. In studies, it has also shown to be effective for shingles-associated pain, with near immediate improvement, and good results after two months of follow-up treatment. Breastfeeding can sometimes cause nipple pain or damage, and Mentha piperita leaf water may help to prevent cracking and pain in nursing mothers.
Ingredients: Mentha piperita Leaf, Structured Water, 96% Alcohol.
Non-Alcohol: Mentha piperita Leaf, Structured Water, Vegetable Glycerin.
All of our ingredients are Certified Organic, Kosher, or Responsibly Wildcrafted. No genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are involved. All other products that are distributed by us meet our high-quality standards.
Instructions: Use 10-20 drops in juice or water, under the tongue or as desired. May be taken 2-4 times daily. Shake well. Store in cool dark place. Keep out of reach of children.
Contraindications: Pregnant and nursing women should not take Mentha piperita without consulting a physician. Mentha piperita may aggravate hiatal hernia. Those who suffer from gallbladder disorders, gallstones or blockage of the bile duct, or those who take heartburn medication (cisapride, etc.) should not take Mentha piperita without consulting a physician. Do not exceed dosage (many time the recommended amount), and it is also recommended to take a few days’ break after two weeks’ continual use. Mentha piperita may interfere with absorption of iron.
Disclaimer: The information presented herein by Herbal Alchemy is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own healthcare provider.
The Journal of the American Botanical Council
Current Issue | Issues | Departments | Authors | Free Samples
Advertise | Submit Articles | Order Issues | Reprint Articles
Issue: 72 Page: 1,4-5
Peppermint HerbalGram. 2006; 72:1,4-5 American Botanical Council
Mentha x piperita Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
Introduction: Peppermint is one of the most popular herbs used in today’s society.1 A summer-growing, perennial aromatic herb, peppermint is a hybrid of Mentha spicata (spearmint) and M. aquatica (watermint). The plant grows wild throughout Europe and North America in moist areas and is thought to be of Mediterranean origin. The leaves and stems of peppermint contain volatile oils that give the plant its pungent fragrance and taste. The oil contains menthol, which is responsible for the sensation of coolness that is characteristic of peppermint.1
History and Cultural Significance: The genus Mentha was named after the Greek nymph Minthe.2 Legend has it that Minthe was the lover of Pluto, the God of the Greek underworld. When Pluto’s wife heard of the affair, she murdered Minthe in a fit of rage and jealousy. In remembrance of Minthe, Pluto brought her back to life as a fragrant plant. The name peppermint is from the species name piperita meaning “peppery,” which distinguishes peppermint from other forms of mint.2
The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder (circa 23-79 CE) wrote that Greeks and Romans used peppermint to adorn themselves and their tables at feasts, and that their cooks used it to flavor both wine and sauces.3 There is some evidence that M. x piperita was cultivated by Egyptians, and it appears in 13th century Icelandic medical documents. However, it was not used medicinally in Europe until the mid-18th century.3
Peppermint has a long history of unique uses. Aristotle (circa 384-322 BCE) referenced peppermint in his writings as an aphrodisiac.2 Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) forbade his soldiers to have peppermint because it was thought to promote erotic thoughts and deplete soldiers of the desire to fight. Arabs used peppermint in their social drinks as a virility stimulant and Romans would spread peppermint on their floors to help get rid of pests.2
Peppermint has many modern uses worldwide.4 Leaf preparations are made from either fresh or dried leaves, while the oil is distilled from freshly-harvested sprigs.4 Many believe that peppermint is too intense for subtle dishes, but leaves or their essential oil are commonly found in tea, chocolate, confections, chewing gum, jellies, and sauces.5 Peppermint can also be added to chilled soups or rice on warm days to help cool down the body.5
In traditional herbal medicine peppermint has reportedly been used as a tonic for preventing gas, relieving spasms, and other stomach ailments.3,6 Its traditional use also includes treatment of cholera and diarrhea, to raise body heat and induce perspiration, to treat colds, flu, hysteria and nervous disorders,3 as well as to assist in alleviating tension headaches.4 Today, the peppermint plant is commonly added to cough and cold remedies because of its high menthol content, which provides a sensation of coolness and easier breathing.7
The tobacco industry uses peppermint oil largely as a flavoring and for its high concentration of menthol and cooling sensation in filtered cigarettes, cigars, and both chewing and pipe tobacco.6 Due to its unique fragrance, peppermint is often found in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes.6
Modern Research: Studies have been conducted to evaluate peppermint’s documented and potential effects on various gastrointestinal and neurological conditions such as dyspepsia8,9,10,11 and tension headaches (oil used topically).12,13 Peppermint’s antispasmodic and antidiarrheal effects are topics of continued research.14 Enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules have been shown to be effective in clinical trials for treating irritable bowel syndrome15,16,17,18,19,20,21 and the oil has been used effectively to reduce fecal odor in cholostomy bags22 and to reduce colonic spasms during barium enema23,24 and colonoscopy.25,26
Future Outlook: The world production of peppermint is more than 4000 tons per year with the United States accounting for over 90% of the production.27 There has been a steady increase in demand for peppermint because of its many uses and because of recent expansion into the Asian market. The plant requires certain environmental conditions that greatly limit suitable areas for cultivation. Because of the high demand and climatic constraints, it is becoming common for peppermint crops to be harvested twice each season (double harvesting) in the United States. Double harvesting can lead to rootstock depletion and can diminish the quality of oil produced. Horticulturists have also encountered a growing pest infestation that is leading to excessive leaf loss and consequently lower oil quality.27
—Gayle Engels, Meredith Podraza, and Adrian Sierant
- Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
- Onstad D. Whole Foods Companion. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Co.; 1996.
- Grieve M. A Modern Herbal. Vol. 2. New York: Dover Books; 1971.
- Blumenthal M, Hall T, Goldberg A, Kunz T, Dinda K, Brinckmann J, Wollschlaeger B, eds. The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council; 2003.
- Wood R. The New Whole Foods Encyclopedia. Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books; 1999.
- Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
- Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy: Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Paris: Lavoisier Publishing; 1999.
- Friese J, Köhler S. Peppermint oil-caraway oil fixed combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia comparison of the effect of two Galenical preparations. [in German]. Pharmazie. 1999;54(3):210-215.
- Madisch A, Heydenreich C, Wieland V, Hufnagel R, Hotz J. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a fixed peppermint oil and caraway oil combination preparation as compared to cisapride. A multicentre, reference-controlled double-blind equivalence study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49(11):925-932.
- May B, Kuntz H, Kieser M, Köhler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996;46(12):1140-1153.
- May B, Köhler S, Schneider B. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from functional dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. December 27, 2000;14(12):1671-1677.
- Göbel H, Fresenius J, Heinze A, Dworschak M, Soyka D. Effectiveness of Oleum Menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of tension headache. [in German]. Nervenarzt. 1996;67(8):672-681.
- Göbel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysical and experimental algesimetric headache parameter. Cephalalgia. 1994;14(3):229-234; discussion 182.
- Micklefield G, Jung O, Greving I, May B. Effects of intraduodenal application of peppermint oil (WS(R) 1) and caraway oil (WS(R) 1520) on gastroduodenal motility in healthy volunteers. Phythother Res. 2003;17(2):135-40.
- Liu J, Chen G, Yeh H, Huang C, Poon S. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. 1997;32(6):765-768.
- Carling L, Svedberg L, Hulten S. Short-term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyamine. Opuscula Medica. 1989;34:55-57.
- Lawson M, Knight R, Tran K, Walker G, Robers-Thomson I. Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind crossover study. J Gastroent Hepatol. 1988;3:235-238.
- Nash P, Gould S, Barnardo D. Peppermint oil does not relieve the pain of irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Clin Pract. 1986;40:292-293.
- Dew M, Evans B, Rhodes J. Peppermint oil for the irritable bowel syndrome: a multicentre trial. Br J Clin Pract. 1984;38(11-12):394,398.
- Rees WDW, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. Br Med J. 1979;6:835-836.
- Pittler M, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(7):1131-1135.
- McKenzie J, Gallacher M. A sweet smelling success: use of peppermint oil in helping patients accept their colostomies. Nurs Time. 1989;85(27):48-49.
- Sparks M, O’Sullivan P, Herrington A, Morcos S. Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema? Br J Radiol. 1995;68(812):841-843.
- Jarvis L, Hogg J, Houghton C. Topical peppermint oil for the relief of spasm at barium enema. Clin Radiol. 1992;46:A435.
- Duthie H. The effect of peppermint oil on colonic motility in man. Br J Surg. 1981;68:820.
- Leicester R, Hunt R. Peppermint oil to reduce colonic spasm during endoscopy. Lancet. 1982;2(8305):989.
- Peterson L, Bienvenu F. Peppermint Oil. The New Rural Industries: a Handbook for Farmers and Investors. Available at: http://www.rirdc.gov.au/pub/handbook/peppermint.html. Accessed August 1, 2006.
Mentha Piperita. Peppermint
This section is from the book „Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics„, by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Mentha Piperita. Peppermint
The leaves and tops of Mentha piperita Smith (nat. ord. Labiata.
Habitat Wild in Asia, Europe, and North America; cultivated.
Characters Leaves about 5 cm. long, petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, acute, sharply serrate, glandular, nearly smooth, the few hairs containing crystals of Menthol in one or more thin cells; branches quadrangular, often purplish; flowers in terminal, conical spikes, with a tubular, five-toothed, often purplish, calyx, a purplish, four-lobed corolla, and four short stamens; odor aromatic; taste pungent and cooling.
Composition Its chief constituents are – (1) A volatile oil, (see below); (2) A liquid, and (3) a crystalline Menthol.
Preparation 1. Spiritus Menthae Piperita. – Spirit of Peppermint. Synonym. – Essence of Peppermint. Oil of Peppermint, 100; Peppermint, 10. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol to 1000.
Spirit of Peppermint is contained in Mistura Rhei et Sodae.
Dose, 5 to 15 m.; .30 to 1.00 c.c.
Oleum Menthae Piperita. Oil Of Peppermint
A volatile oil distilled from Peppermint.
Characters A colorless, or yellowish, or greenish-yellow liquid, becoming darker and thicker by age and exposure to the air, having the characteristic, strong odor of Peppermint, and a strongly aromatic, pungent taste, followed by a sensation of cold when air is drawn into the mouth. Sp. gr., 0.900 to 0.920.
Composition The chief constituents are – (1) Menthene, C10H18, the liquid Terpene obtained by distillation. (2) Menthol, the solid Stearopten (q. v.), 50 to 65 per cent.
Oil of Peppermint is contained in Pilulae Rhei Compositae.
Dose, 1 to 5 m.; .06 to .30 c.c.
Preparations 1. Aqua Menthae Piperitae. – Peppermint water. Oil of Peppermint, 2. By trituration with precipitated Calcium Phosphate, and filtration with distilled water to 1000.
Dose, 1/2 to 2 fl. oz.; 15. to 60. c.c.
2. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae. – See above.
Action And Therapeutics Of Peppermint
External The action of oil of peppermint is the same as that of volatile oils generally, but the cool, numb feeling often produced by volatile oils after the sensation has passed off is especially well marked with oil of peppermint; and this effect, which is due to the menthol in it, has caused it to be applied externally in neuralgia. Like many other volatile oils it is a powerful antiseptic. It is in common use as the “ peppermint test“ for defective plumbing.
Internal It is often used as a powerful stomachic and carminative, and also as a flavoring agent.
Continue to: next: Mentha Viridis. Spearmint