Boraks i borna kiselina (Borax – Natrium boricum et Acidum boricum)
MINERALNI PREPARATI BORA (NATRIJUM TETRABORAT-BORAKS, BORNA KISELINA 3%):
– namenjeni za topikalnu upotrebu u oftalmologiji, ostala upotreba u kozmetici.
MINERALNI PREPARATI BORA:
RASTVORI BORAKSA 5%, 10% (50 – 100 mg/ g),
Natrium boricum solutio 5%, 10%, (Natrium boricum decahydricum solutio).
(Disodium tetraborate decahydrate).
BORAKS MONOKOMPONENTNI PRAŠAK
Natrium boricum decahydricum pulvis.
RASTVOR BORNE KISELINE 3% (30 mg/ g),
Acidum boricum 3%.
MINERALNI PREPARATI BORA:
RASTVORI BORAKSA 5%, 10%, (15 – 100 mg/ g),
Natrium boricum solutio 5%, 10%, (Natrium boricum decahydricum solutio).
BORAKS MONOKOMPONENTNI PRAŠAK
Natrium boricum decahydricum pulvis.
RASTVOR BORNE KISELINE 3% (30 mg/ g),
Acidum boricum 3%.
Borax> Scheme> Ph. Eur.>
ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification)
S01AX Other anti-infectives>
S01AX07 Sodium borate
V60AB – monokomponentni homeopatik,
V60B – antropozofik.
CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service)
Chemical Formula: Na2-B4-O7·(H2O)10
Molecular Weight: 381.363 g/mol (381,372)
Sodium borate B4H20Na2O17
Borax Solution B4Na2O7 anhidrovani
BORIC ACID Molecular Weight: 61.831 g/mol H3BO3
U skladu sa:
Eu. Ph. 8, 01.07.2015. monografijom: 1682 Borax (Natrium boricum decahydricum)
Pharmacopée française 2002 ANSM: Natrium boricum ad praeparationes homoeopathicas
(BORAX POUR PRÉPARATIONS HOMÉOPATHIQUES)
Mineralni preparati u tečnom obliku (nerazblaženi ili razblaženi) za oralnu i lokalnu (topikalnu) upotrebu.
a) Natrium boricum solutio 5%, 10%, (Sodium borate dilution 5%, 10%,),
a) rastvor (DER 1:20), rastvarač visoko prečišćena – ultra čista voda (aqua valde purificata),
b) rastvor (DER 1:10), rastvarač visoko prečišćena – ultra čista voda (aqua valde purificata),
Bor ispoljava mnogobrojna istražena dejstva, nalazi se u organizmu u paratiroidnim žlezdama, kostima i zubnoj gleđi.
sadrži natrijum tetraborat p.a. (pro analysi – analitičke čistoće 99,9%)
Molecular formula: Na2B4O7 x 10H2O Molecular weight 201.213 g/mol (anhydrous); 381.363 g/mol (Natrium boricum decahydricum)
a) Natrium boricum solutio 5%, 10%, 50 – 100 mg boraks/ grama rastvora,
b) ultračista voda (aqua valde purificata/ UPW-elektroprovodljivosti ispod 1 µS/cm).
Bor se označava jedinicom miliekvivalent na litar (mEq/L) ili milimol po litru (mmol/L).
Svaki gram boraksa (dekahidrata ) sadrži ≈ xx mmol bora.
Svaki gram borne kiseline sadrži ≈ xx mmol bora.
Boraks (natrijum borat dekahidrat) xxx sadrži približno 1 g bora.
Borna kiselina (Acidum boricum – Acidi borici – Boric acid) xxx sadrži približno 1 g bora.
Normalne vrednosti su:
Kritična vrednost :
Bor je neophodan za integritet i funkciju ćelijskih zidova. Boron is essential for the integrity and function of cell walls and for the way signals are transmitted across membranes. Boron is distributed throughout the body, with the highest concentration in the parathyroid glands followed by bones and dental enamel. It is essential for healthy bone and joint function, regulating the absorption and metabolism of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus through its influence on the parathyroid glands. With this, boron is to the parathyroids what iodine is to the thyroid.
Boron deficiency causes the parathyroids to become overactive, releasing too much parathyroid hormone which raises the blood level of calcium by releasing calcium from bones and teeth. This then leads to arthritis, osteoporosis and tooth decay. With advancing age, high blood levels of calcium lead to calcification of soft tissues causing muscle contractions and stiffness;
calcification of endocrine glands, especially the pineal gland and the ovaries;
arteriosclerosis; kidney stones and calcification of the kidneys, ultimately leading to kidney failure.
Niska vrednost bora u krvi može biti izazvana:
Visoka vrednosti bora u krvi može biti izazvana:
Mineralni preparati su namenjeni poboljšanju opšteg stanja organizma kroz razna naučno dokazana dejstva.
Upotreba kod MAIN INDICATIONS:* Sores in the mouth* Genital herpes* Fainting travel
Indikacije za upotrebu su: homeop IZBOR KRITERIJUMI :* Feeding teškoće , zbog gori na području lezija u usnoj šupljini* Žućkasto dijareja* Mehurići, ispunjene providnom tečnošću maglovite koje su izazvale opalescentna
* Preosetljivost na iznenadne zvuke SELECTION CRITERIA:* Feeding difficulty, due to burning in the area of lesions in the oral cavity* Yellowish diarrhea* Vesicles, filled with hazy translucent fluid that caused opalescent* Hypersensitivity to sudden noises
Ima jako dejstvo kod:
Upotrebljava se kao: antiseptik, fungicid, virucid, blagi baktericid
Doziranje i način primene:
p.p., individualno u zavisnosti od godina starosti i stanja organizma.
Natrium boricum solutio 5%, 10%;
Natrium boricum pulvis;
Acidi borici 3%:
Mineralni preparati BORA:
pojedinačna doza: xxx g, preporučena dnevna doza (PDD): xxx g (n/a – nije primenljivo).
Oralna (sat vremena pre obroka) i lokalna primena.
Upotreba na koži: aplicirati na obolelo mesto u tankom sloju ili obliku impregniranog zavoja, razblažiti pre upotrebe čistom vodom. Zbog specifičnog ukusa kod oralne upotrebe, preporučuje se upotreba sa sokom narandže ili sličnim.
Napraviti pauzu posle 4 nedelje neprekidne upotrebe.
Po preporukama, preparat postiže najbolje efekte pri upotrebi od 8 do 12 nedelja, duža upotreba je bezbedna uz pauze.
Kontraindikacije: preosetljivost na aktivne supstance, preosetljivost na jedinjenja bora,
U većim koncentracijama
Čuvanje: na tamnom, suvom i hladnom mestu do 20˚C, van domašaja dece i izlaganja EM zračenju, u dobro zatvorenoj originalnoj ambalaži.
Rok upotrebe: 5 godina, posle prvog otvaranja 6 meseci.
Pakovanje: 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 50 g i 100 g (1 3/4 fl oz i 3 1/2 fl oz), farmaceutske braon bočice standarno, 250 g, 500 g, 1000 g i 5000 g na zahtev. Kristal prah na zahtev.
Nutritivne informacije: n/a (nije primenljivo)
energetska vrednost u 100 mL: 0 kJ/ 0 kcal,
u preporučenoj dnevnoj dozi (PDD) 2 mL: 0kJ/ 0 kcal,
suve materije (DR) više od
Bez konzervanasa, proteina, masti i ugljenih hidrata.
Analizu na teške metale broj 188/09/13 od septembra 2013. godine izvršila CH analitička laboratorija. ANALIZA BORAKS p.a.
Analizu na teške metale broj xxx/xx/xx od xx. godine izvršila CH analitička laboratorija. ANALIZA BORNA KISELINA p.a.
RSD 340,00/ 100 g 10% (u zavisnosti od veličine pakovanja, procenta Boraksa) u 100 grama rastvora,
RSD 320,00/ 100 g 5% (u zavisnosti od veličine pakovanja, procenta Boraksa) u 100 grama rastvora,
(2 + Na2B4O7 x10H2O g% x 0,024) x 100,00 RSD
10% RSD – 340,00/ 100 g, sadrži 10 grama boraksa u 100 grama rastvora,
5% RSD – 320,00/ 100 g, sadrži 5 grama boraksa u 100 grama rastvora,
RSD 1800,00 – 500 grama Na2B4O7 x10H2O monokomponentni prah (kristal), p.a. (analitičke) čistoće.
RSD 360,00 – 100 grama Na2B4O7 x10H2O monokomponentni prah (kristal), p.a. (analitičke) čistoće.
Podaci ažurirani januara 2022. Pogledati i ostale informacije na:
Šta su to elementi u tragovima?
Elementi u tragovima su:
selen bor hrom silicijum molibden kobalt
Klasična definicija minerala koji ulaze u sastav našeg organizma bila bi: to su elementi koji se u organizmu nalaze u vrlo malim količinama, neki gotovo u tragovima (po tome su i dobili naziv – „elementi u tragovima“), ali su neophodni za normalno odvijanje izmene stvari (metabolizma).
Nekad se smatralo da su četiri elementa (gvožđe, bakar, jod i cink) neophodni za normalno funkcionisanje organizma. Tokom poslednjih 30 godina tom je popisu dodato je još desetak elemenata, ali najverojatnije ni to nije konačan broj. Bakar, gvožđe, cink, kalcijum, kalijum, vanadijum, hrom, mangan, molibden, kobalt, jod, fluor, selen i neki drugi elementi (bor) nosioci su životnih funkcija organizma, jer učestvuju u enzimskom sastavu bez kojeg nema neophodnih biohemijskih procesa. Dovoljno je reći da su oni za enzime (naše katalizatore) isto što i kiseonik za disanje čoveka.
Njihov se nedostatak u prehrani očituje celim nizom naizgled beznačajnih oštećenja, ali na kraju ipak ozbiljnih, pa čak i smrtonosnih. Neki naučnici smatraju da su minerali važniji od vitamina, jer se u živom organizmu gotovo nikako ne mogu stvoriti.
Cink, bakar i magnezijum važni su minerali koji nas štite od stresa (naročito magnezijum), održavaju našu kožu i kosu nežnom (naročito cink) i sprečavaju nastanak anemije (naročito bakar – pomaže gvožđu prilikom stvaranja crvenih krvnih zrnaca). Ova tri elementa nedostaju kod žena koje pate od tzv. predmenstrualnog sindroma, imaju krhku kosu, nokte i tanku kožu, a njihov se nedostatak uz gvožđe, može javiti i kod obilnih menstrualnih krvarenja
Osim kalcijuma hronični nedostatak ili manji unos vitamina D, magnezijuma i bora, fluorida i vitamini K, B12 i B6, mogu doprineti nastanaku osteoporoze.
Bor ima uticaj na organizam, pre svega na skelet. Pretpostavlja se da je neophodan za ravnomerno raspoređivanje kalcijuma u organizmu. Zajedno sa kalcijumom, magnezijumom i vitaminom D reguliše metabolizam, rast i razvoj koštanog tkiva. Njegov nedostatak izaziva gubitak kalcijuma i demineralizaciju kostiju.
Boraks u homeopatiji
USP29 BORIC ACID
USP29 SODIUM BORATE
Common Name(s): Borate, Borax sodium, Boric acid, Boric anhydride, Boric tartrate, Boron
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 5, 2019.
Boron has been included in nutritional supplements or natural remedies designed to improve bone and joint health. Boron deficiency has been shown to impair brain function, inflammatory regulation, and immune response, and to increase the risk of some cancers. However, there is no evidence that boron supplementation above the levels derived in a normal diet is beneficial. Therefore, supplementation is likely to only be useful when dietary intake is inadequate. Boron compounds are also used to enhance the cell selectivity of radiation therapy and may lead to a new generation of drugs. Boric acid, a common form of boron not to be confused with boron, has been used traditionally as a topical astringent, a mild topical anti-infective, ophthalmological irrigant, rodent repellent, and insecticide. Boric acid has also been administered intravaginally for recurrent and resistant vulvovaginal candidiasis.
An acceptable safe oral boron intake for adults could be between 1 and 20 mg/day. Tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for boron are: adults 19 years and older, 20 mg/day; adolescents 14 to 18 years of age, 17 mg/day; children 9 to 13 years of age, 11 mg/day; children 4 to 8 years of age, 6 mg/day; children 1 to 3 years of age, 3 mg/day. For the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, boric acid intravaginally 600 mg once or twice daily for 2 weeks has been used; for the prevention of recurring vulvovaginal candidiasis boric acid intravaginally 600 mg twice weekly has been used.
Intravaginal boric acid has been associated with birth defects in the first 4 months of pregnancy.
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking, but when boron is used orally at doses below UL, it is likely to be safe. Boric acid should not be used in pregnancy. Intravaginal boric acid has been associated with birth defects in the first 4 months of pregnancy.
None well documented.
There is little clinical data concerning adverse effects of boron when used at doses less than UL. As noted above, boric acid administration intravaginally during the first 4 months of pregnancy has been associated with increased risk for birth defects.
Although boric acid, borates, and other compounds containing boron are used medicinally, they can be toxic if ingested at high doses or absorbed through nonintact skin.
The element boron (B, atomic number 5) is found in deposits in the earth’s crust at a concentration of about 0.001% (10 ppm). Seawater contains an average of 4.6 ppm boron, ranging from 0.5 to 9.6 ppm. Boron content in fresh water ranges from less than 0.01 to 1.5 ppm, with higher concentrations in regions of high soil boron levels.Woods 1994 It is obtained in the form of various compounds and never in its elemental state.O’Neil 2006
Since 1857, it has been known that environmental boron is taken up by plants in trace amounts, and in 1923, boron was recognized as an essential nutrient for plants.Devirian 2003 Accordingly, plants contribute to dietary boron intake, with primary sources being fruits, nuts, and vegetables.Devirian 2003 Good sources of boron include peanuts, peanut butter, almonds, hazelnuts, seaweed, soybeans, parsley, cocoa, wine, raisins, prunes, apples, and peaches.Devirian 2003, Choi 2008, Rainey 1999, Jamison 2003
Boron was originally obtained in 1895 from the reduction of boric anhydride, which remains a commercially important way to produce impure boron today. Pure boron takes the form of clear red or black crystals, depending on its crystalline shape.O’Neil 2006 The crystals can be as hard as diamonds. The chemistry of boron is extremely complex, with entire texts devoted solely to this topic.
Reports suggest the Babylonians used borax as flux for working gold 4,000 years ago; this is also recognized in the Saudi Arabian area of Mecca and Medina in the 8th century and by European goldsmiths in the 12th century.Woods 1994 Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920 and during World War I and II.Nielsen 2008
Borate-mineral concentrates, borax, boric acid, and other refined products have been used in glass, fiberglass, and washing products, and in combination with other metals to make harder alloys, fertilizers, wood treatments, insecticide, rodent repellant, and antimicrobial.Woods 1994 As an insect and rodent repellent, boric acid was sprinkled in corners and along floor boards; however, this practice should be avoided because of the serious toxicity that can occur if ingested by small children or pets.
Boron is used in nuclear medicine and chemistry as a neutron absorber.
Uses and Pharmacology
Although no clear biological function for boron has been established in humans, evidence from numerous laboratories using a variety of experimental models shows that boron is a beneficial bioactive elementNielsen 2008 referred to by some as an ultratrace mineral.Jamison 2003, Nielsen 2008 It is postulated that it may even be essential to humans.Mastromatteo 1994, Nielsen 2009
The evidence includes deprivation studies showing that boron is necessary for some higher animals to complete their life cycle (eg, frogs,Fort 1999, Fort 2002 zebrafish).Rowe 1999 However, critical experiments demonstrating that boron is essential for a complete mammal life cycle or as an essential biochemical role for life are lacking.Nielsen 2008
In higher animals, low boron intake (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) when compared with diets of higher boron intake (1 to 15 mg/kg) have been found to induce biochemical and functional changes often considered detrimental, particularly bone health (growth and maintenance), brain function, and inflammatory response.Nielsen 2009, Nielsen 2009
In humans, boron intake of 1 to 3 mg/day compared with intakes between 0.25 and 0.5 mg/day appear to have beneficial effects on bone and brain health,Nielsen 2008, Nielsen 2009 while boron deprivation studies have shown an effect on markers for inflammatory response.Nielsen 2009
While no specific boron deficiency state has been described,Jamison 2003, Nielson 2008 signs of boron deficiency in humans include the followingNielsen 2009: altered macromineral, electrolyte, energy substrate, nitrogen, and oxidative metabolism; changes to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis; electroencephalogram (EEG) changes suggesting depressed behavioral activation and mental alertness; depressed psychomotor skills; and depressed cognitive processes of attention and memory.
Bone and joint health
Boron is known to influence a variety of metabolic actions. It interacts with calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium, which are all important in bone metabolism.Devirian 2003, Beattie 1993, Meacham 1994 Boron accumulates in bone in concentrations dependent on the amount consumedChapin 1998; bone mineral density has been shown to be related to boron intakeBeattie 1993; calcium appears to be more readily stripped from bones in people with low boron intake; and boron may be particularly effective in protecting bone mass in individuals with vitamin D, magnesium, and potassium deficiency.Nielsen 1009, Schaafsma and 2001, Reid 1993 Boron may also influence the metabolism of other minerals, such as copper, potassium, and phosphorus.Devirian 2003, Jamison 2003, Beattie 1993, Meacham 1995 Boron has also been found to increase estrogen concentrations in postmenopausal womenNielsen 1987 and in healthy men.Naghii 1997 Therefore, it is likely that boron may play a role in bone health through formation or enhancement of steroid hormones preventing calcium loss and consequent bone demineralization, which may explain the epidemiological evidence that boron is essential for healthy bones and joints.Newnham 1994, Palacios 2006
Various studies show boron alone is beneficial to bone.Gorustovich 2008, Gorustovich 2008 One study in rats showed that boron deprivation (0.1 mg/kg diet) compared with boron supplementation (3 mg/kg diet) resulted in decreased bone volume fraction and trabecular thickness, and increased trabecular separation and structural model index (a lower level is preferable) promoting bone strength.Nielsen 2006, Nielsen 2009 In another study comparing rats fed boron 0.07 mg/kg compared with 3 mg/kg, boron deprivation decreased bone volume fraction in the alveolus 14 days after tooth extraction.Gorustovich 2008, Gorustovich 2006 Boron deprivation studies showed decreased bone strength in femurs of female ratsNielsen 2004 and pigs.Armstrong 2000, Armstrong 2002
Boron deprivation may not markedly affect calcium and phosphorus concentrations in bone, but rather the concentrations of other minerals (eg, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc)Nielsen 2004, Nielsen 2007 associated with the formation, differentiation, and activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Mice fed a boron-deficient diet (0.07 mg/kg) for 9 weeks compared with mice supplemented with boron 3 mg/kg exhibited decreased osteoblast surface and increased quiescent bone-forming surface of periodontal alveolar bone.Gorustovich 2008
Various environmental and dietary factors may enhance the effects of boron. Several studies have shown that when animal models are fed marginal amounts of vitamin D, classic signs of vitamin D deficiency related to bone and calcium metabolism are exhibited in boron-deprived animals but not in animals fed nutritional amounts of boron.Hunt 1989, Hegsted 1991, Bai 1996 Similarly, boron has been shown to increase the efficacy of estrogen supplementation in rats, resulting in a beneficial effect on trabecular bone volume fraction, bone growth plate density, and trabecular separation.Sheng 2001 The combination of boron and estrogen versus either alone also markedly improved the apparent absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, as well as the retention of calcium and magnesium.Sheng 2001 In this and other studies, boron supplementation alone did not improve any of these variables in the ovarectomized rats.Sheng 2001, Stoecker 2005 A recent study comparing rats and their offspring supplemented with boron 0 to 3 mg/kg and fed either safflower oil or fish oil showed a beneficial effect from boron supplementation on trabecular microarchitecture and cortical bone strength, and that feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil is beneficial to vertebral and cortical bone strength. Boron and fish oil apparently have beneficial effects through different mechanisms that sometimes appear complementary.Sheng 2001
Studies have shown that the concentration of boron in bonesNewnham 1981 and synovial fluidNewnham 1981, Havercroft 1991 of people with rheumatoid arthritis is lower than in people without this disorder.
Surgeons have observed that bones of patients who use boron supplements are much harder to cut than bones of patients who do not.Newnham 1994 It has also been observed that boron supplements apparently accelerate the healing of broken bones.Nielsen 2008
An epidemiologic relationship has also been established between arthritis and low boron intake. In areas of the world where boron intake is 1 mg/day or less, the estimated incidence of arthritis ranges from 20% to 70%, whereas in areas where boron intake is usually 3 to 10 mg/day, the estimated incidence ranges from 0% to 10%.Newnham 1994 Low boron intake may also worsen rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and decrease the ability to engage in physical exercise that requires a high-energy output.Jamison 2003
A double-blind, placebo-boron supplementation trial in 20 patients with osteoarthritis showed that 50% receiving boron 6 mg/day improved on self-reported measures of joint swelling, restricted movement, and analgesia compared with only 10% in those receiving placebo.Travers 1990
In postmenopausal women, the increases in serum 17beta-estradiol induced by estrogen therapy were higher when consumed with 3.25 mg/day of boron instead of 0.25 mg/day of boron.Nielsen 1992 Dietary boron had no effect in men or women not ingesting estrogen. These findings suggest that boron can enhance and mimic some effects of estrogen ingestion.Nielsen 2004
Boron neutron capture therapy
Boron-based compounds are used in conjunction with radiation therapy to enhance the selective killing of neoplastic cells. Boron neutron capture therapy is based on the ability of the stable isotope 10B to capture neutrons, which leads to a nuclear reaction producing an alpha- and a 7Li-particle, both having high biological effectiveness and a very short range in tissue, thus opening the possibility for a highly selective cancer therapy.Wittig 2008, Hunter 2009 This type of therapy is being examined in clinical trials in resistant and difficult-to-treat cancers.Haselsberger 1994, Kankaanranta 2007, Pisarev 2007, Suzuki 2007, Suzuki 2007, Miyatake 2007
Brain function, cognitive performance, and psychomotor function
Boron may be important in brain function,Penland 1994, Penland 1998 with deprivation impairing cognitive and psychomotor function, resulting in decreased mental alertness and poorer performance at tasks requiring speed and dexterity, attention, and/or short-term memory.Penland 1994, Institute of Medicine 2012
Measures of brain electrophysiology and behavior have been shown to be sensitive to boron nutritional inadequacy in animals.Penland 1989, Penland 1993 In a study comparing rats fed 0 versus 3 mcg/g of boron for 75 days, more activity was seen in the lower frequencies than in the higher frequencies on electrocorticograms.Penland 1993
One study found that boron deprivation alters rat behavior and brain mineral composition differently when dietary fat (75 g/kg) was supplied as fish oil (65 g/kg plus 10 g/kg of linoleic acid) instead of safflower oil.Nielsen 2006 Boron-deficient (0.1 mg/kg diet) rats were less active than boron-adequate (3.1 mg/kg diet) rats when fed safflower oil, but when fed fish oil, the activity response to boron deprivation was attenuated.Nielsen 2006
Various studies in healthy older men and women assessed brain EEG activity and response to cognitive and psychomotor performance with dietary manipulation of boron (0.25 vs 3.25 mg per 2,000 kcal/day).Penland 1994, Penland 1989, Penland 1900 All studies provided evidence that relatively short periods of restricted boron intake can affect brain function and cognitive performance in otherwise healthy people.Penland 1994
The most consistent EEG finding seen with low boron intake was a shift toward more activity in the lower frequencies and less activity in the higher, dominant frequencies of the EEG spectrum.Penland 1994 This same effect is often observed in response to nonspecific malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity.Nielsen 2008, Penland 1994 In addition, increased low frequency activity is typical in states of drowsiness and reduced mental alertness and has been associated with poorer performance on vigilance and psychomotor tasks, as well as decreased high-frequency activity related to impaired memory in some conditions.Nielsen 2008, Penland 1994
Effects on psychomotor skills and cognitive processes of attention, perception, and memory were variable.Nielsen 2008, Penland 1994 In the same studies,Penland 1994, Penland 1989, Penland 1990 search-count (a measure of attention) and symbol-count (a measure of encoding skills and short-term memory) consistently showed that boron deprivation impaired response times. However, not all tasks were adversely affected by dietary boron deprivation.
While boron deprivation may have an adverse effect on brain function, there is no evidence that supplementation above normal dietary levels can enhance mental acuity or improve alertness.
The structural and electronic aspects of boron and its compounds are creating interest in a new generation of drugs that could possibly interfere with target molecules not readily accessible to carbon-based compounds. Bortezomib (Velcade), a proteasome inhibitor, is indicated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, and other boron-based drugs are in the pipeline, including AN2690 for the treatment of onychomycosis and antibiotics that might be less likely to trigger resistance.Hunter 2009
A triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 113 single female university students with primary dysmenorrhea explored the effects of boron supplementation on pain severity and duration. Boron supplementation (300 mg daily for 5 days; equivalent to 10 mg/day boron) was taken through the first 3 days of menstrual flow for 2 consecutive cycles. Over time across the 2 cycles, mean severity (P=0.001) and duration (P=0.032) of pain were significantly lower with boron than in the control group. No major side effects were observed.Nikkhah 2015
Inflammatory or immune response
Other diverse responses reported for low boron intake include effects on membrane integrity and function, impairment of hormone receptors (including decreased insulin sensitivity) and signal transduction functions, and regulation of enzymatic activity.Devirian 2003, Jamison 2003, Nielsen 2009, Hunt 1998 Some of these responses may play a role in inflammatory or immunological regulation and may be secondary to a primary action.
There are numerous studies in animals that suggest boron may have a regulatory role in inflammatory or immune response. These include boron-supplemented rats demonstrating reduced swelling and lower circulating concentrations of natural killer and immune cells after injection with an antigen to induce arthritisHunt 1999; delayed onset of adjuvant-induced arthritis in ratsHunt 1999; lower skin-fold thickness response to an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutination in pigsArmstrong 2001; and lower antibody response to injected typhoid antigen in ratsBai 1997; when compared with boron-low or -deficient diets.
A recent study in miceBourgeois 2007 showed boron deprivation downregulated 30 of 31 cytokines or chemokines associated with the inflammatory response 6 days after infection with the nematode H. bakerii. Another studyArmstrong 2003 showed lower serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma after lipopolysaccharide injection in pigs fed a marginal boron-deficient diet than in those supplemented with a 5 mg/kg of boron diet.
Boron status in humans has been shown to affect various immunological markers. These include increased white blood cells, increased percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and decreased percentage of leucocytes in perimenopausal women during the period of boron supplementation.Nielsen 1999 Self-reported improvement in symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis consuming 6 mg/day of boron when compared with placebo,Travers 1990 may be a result of an effect on the inflammatory response.
Low boron intake has been associated with increased risk of prostate cancerCui 2004, 61; higher cytopathological indicators of cervical cancerKorkmaz 2007; some types of breast cancerTouillaud 2005; and lung cancer,Mahabir 2008 possibly due to an immune system effect.
One investigator has reported the use of boron supplementation in approximately 30 cases to facilitate dissolution and/or passing of urinary stones with minimal pain. Boron was well tolerated without observation of side effects. Boron was supplemented at 10 mg/day with and without additional antioxidants for 2 to 60 days.Naghii 2012, Naghii 2013, Naghii 2014 In the absence of a control group, it’s difficult to attribute the results to boron.
Studies show that intravaginal boric acid can treat candidiasis and other vaginal fungal infections, including resistant and chronic infection.Thai 1993, Van Slyke 1981, Swate1974, Guaschino 2001, Jovanovic 1991 One study reported that boric acid used intravaginally cured 92% versus 64% with nystatin 100,000 units for Candida albicans.Van Slyke 1981 For Candida glabrata, intravaginal boric acid successfully treated 65% to 70% of azole-resistant infections.Sobel 2003, Sobel 1997 For Candida krusei, which is rare but resistant to azole antifungal treatment, boric acid appeared to be effective in some cases.Singh 2002
The 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals indicated that the median boron intakes ranged from a low of about 0.75 mg/day to a high of about 1.35 mg/day.Institute of Medicine 2012 No recommended daily allowance has been established for boron because an essential biological role has not been identified, although the World Health Organization has suggested 1 to 13 mg/dayWHO 1996 as an acceptable safe range for adults. Dietary intake varies. Diets considered high in boron provide about 3.25 mg of boron per 2,000 kcal/day. Diets considered low in boron provide 0.25 mg of boron per 2,000 kcal/day.Penland 1994
Boron has been studied at a wide range of doses. Daily dosages of 2.5 to 10 mg of boron have been administered for osteoarthritisNewnham 1994 and strength conditioning.Green 1994, Ferrando 1993 Individuals consuming 0.25 mg/day respond positively to boron supplementation of 1 mg/day.Jamison 2003 A single dose of 102.6 mg of sodium tetraborate was studied for its effects on factor VIIa.Wallace 2002
For adults 19 years and older, including pregnant or breast-feeding women
For adolescents 14 to 18 years of age, including pregnant or breast-feeding adolescents
For children 9 to 13 years of age
For children 4 to 8 years of age
For children 1 to 3 years of age
For infants younger than 1 year
a UL has not been established.
A 2009 review recommended that patients on parenteral nutrition receive 1 mg/day because it is unlikely that this amount is being delivered in current parenteral solutions.Nielsen 2009
For treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, boric acid 600 mg once or twice daily for 2 weeks has been used.Van Slyke 1981, Swate 1974, Guaschino 2001, Jovanovic 1991, Sobel 2003, Sobel 1997 For prevention of recurring vulvovaginal candidiasis, boric acid 600 mg twice weekly has been used.Jovanovic 1991, Sobel 1997
Pregnancy / Lactation
Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking, but when boron is used orally in doses below UL, it is likely to be safe.Institute of Medicine 2012 Boric acid should not be used in pregnancy. Intravaginal boric acid has been associated with birth defects if used during the first 4 months of pregnancy.Thai 1993, Acs 2006, MedlinePlus 2015
Boron supplementation in patients with estrogen-sensitive conditions (eg, breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids) should be avoided, and it should be used cautiously with concomitant estrogens because it may increase the levels or enhance the activity of estrogen.MedlinePlus 2015
Clinical information concerning the adverse effects of boron is limited. Recommendations regarding the oral dose below which adverse reactions are unlikely range from 10Naghii 1997 to 20 mg/day.Institute of Medicine 2012
Although compounds containing boron are used medicinally, they are potentially toxic if ingested or absorbed through nonintact skin. Long-term use of boric acid orally 1 g/day or boric tartrate 15 g/day can cause dermatitis, alopecia, anorexia, lethargy, and indigestion.Institute of Medicine 2012 Boric acid has been well tolerated intravaginallyRein 1981 and does not appear to result in systemic absorption.Thai 1993 Vulvovaginal burning has been reported. Dyspareunia may occur in males if intercourse occurs shortly after vaginal treatment.Van Kessel 2003
Boric acid and borates can be toxic when ingested. The minimum lethal dose of boric acid is 640 mg/kg/day, with the potential lethal dose reported to be 15 to 20 g/day for adults and 3 to 6 g/day for infants.Institute of Medicine 2012 Animal studies have shown that high doses of borax and boric acid may adversely affect male fertility; however, this has not been observed in humans.Institute of Medicine 2012, Scialli 2010
Boric acid solutions should not be used on broken skin or on severely irritated or inflamed mucous membranes in order to prevent possible toxicity via absorption.
Fatalities have been reported because of confusion between boric acid and similar-looking powders (ie, baking soda, dextrose). Stringent controls should be maintained in hospitals, nursing homes, and other public facilities to prevent possible intoxications due to errant use of boron-containing products.
There is no effective antidote to boron poisoning, and treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Symptoms of toxicity include headache, irritation and sloughing of skin, GI upset including diarrhea and vomiting, restlessness and irritability, somnolence, weakness, tremors, kidney and liver damage, convulsions, coma, or death.
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This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Boron, see our consumer fact sheet on Boron.
Boron is a trace element that is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement. It is a structural component of plant cell walls and is required for plant growth, pollination, and seed formation .
Boron is not classified as an essential nutrient for humans because research has not yet identified a clear biological function for boron . However, it might have beneficial effects on such functions as reproduction and development, calcium metabolism, bone formation, brain function, insulin and energy substrate metabolism, immunity, and the function of steroid hormones (including vitamin D and estrogen) [1-14].
Boron is present in foods and beverages as inorganic borates as well as mono- or di-sugar-borate esters, such as calcium fructoborate [14,15]. Most ingested boron is hydrolyzed to boric acid within the gastrointestinal tract . The body absorbs about 85%–90% of ingested boron [2,4]. However, very little is known about how or where in the gastrointestinal tract absorption occurs .
Boron does not accumulate in most body tissues, but bone, nails, and hair have higher boron levels than other body tissues, whereas fat has lower levels . Boric acid is the main form of boron in blood, urine, and other body fluids [2,4,7]. The lack of substantial changes in blood boron levels in response to large increases in dietary intakes suggests that the body maintains boron homeostasis, likely by increasing urinary excretion, but the regulatory mechanisms for boron homeostasis have not been identified . Boron is excreted mainly in the urine, and small amounts are excreted in the feces, sweat, breath, and bile [9,10].
Boron status is not routinely measured in clinical practice. Most studies suggest that urinary boron levels correlate with boron intakes [2,4,16,17]. Fasting plasma concentrations of boron in postmenopausal women range from 34 to 95 ng/mL (3.14 to 8.79 mcmol/L) .
Intake recommendations for nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by an expert committee of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine . DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and sex, include:
- Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals.
- Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA.
- Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals.
- Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects.
The FNB found the existing data insufficient to derive an RDA, AI, or EAR for boron . The World Health Organization estimates that an “acceptable safe range” of boron intakes for adults is 1–13 mg/day .
Sources of Boron
The main sources of boron in the diets of people in the United States are coffee, milk, apples, dried and cooked beans, and potatoes, primarily because people tend to consume large amounts of these foods [7,15]. Among toddlers, 38% of boron intakes comes from fruits and fruit juices and 19% from milk and cheese [6,20]. For adolescents, milk and cheese products account for 18%–20% of boron intakes, whereas beverages, especially instant coffee, represent the largest dietary source of boron for adults .
The amount of boron in plant foods depends somewhat on the boron content of the soil and water where they were grown [7,21]. Areas of the world with limited boron in the soil include Brazil, Japan, and most of the United States, mainly because of high levels of rainfall, which leaches boron out of the soil . In contrast, arid regions of the world—including California and parts of Turkey, Argentina, Chile, Russia, China, and Peru—have higher boron concentrations [21,22].
Boron concentrations are about 0.27 mg/L in breast milk and 0.33 mg/L in cow’s milk . Water contains boron, but the concentration varies considerably by source . The median boron concentration of drinking water in the United States is 0.031 mg/L .
Selected food sources of boron are listed in Table 1. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) FoodData Central  does not list the boron content of foods or provide lists of foods containing boron. Therefore, information on boron levels in foods is limited.
|Prune juice, 1 cup||1.43|
|Avocado, raw, cubed, ½ cup||1.07|
|Raisins, 1.5 ounces||0.95|
|Peaches, 1 medium||0.80|
|Grape juice, 1 cup||0.76|
|Apples, 1 medium||0.66|
|Pears, 1 medium||0.50|
|Peanuts, roasted, salted, 1 ounce||0.48|
|Beans, refried, ½ cup||0.48|
|Peanut butter, 2 tablespoons||0.46|
|Apple juice, 1 cup||0.45|
|Chili con carne, with beans, 1 cup||0.41|
|Grapes, ½ cup||0.37|
|Oranges, 1 medium||0.37|
|Lima beans, dry, cooked, ½ cup||0.35|
|Applesauce, ½ cup||0.34|
|Fruit cocktail, canned, in heavy syrup, ½ cup||0.26|
|Broccoli, boiled, chopped, ½ cup||0.20|
|Orange juice, 1 cup||0.18|
|Spinach, boiled, ½ cup||0.16|
|Spaghetti sauce, ½ cup||0.16|
|Cantaloupe, cubed, ½ cup||0.14|
|Carrots, raw, 1 medium||0.14|
|Peas, green, cooked, ½ cup||0.10|
|Potato chips, 1 ounce, about 22 chips||0.09|
|French fries, from frozen, deep fried, 10 fries||0.08|
|Coffee, 1 cup||0.07|
|Lettuce, chopped, loosely packed, 1 cup||0.06|
|Tomatoes, raw, chopped, ½ cup||0.06|
|Tuna, canned, water packed, 3 ounces||0.05|
|Milk, whole, 1 cup||0.04|
|Corn, cooked, ½ cup||0.04|
|Rice, white, cooked, ½ cup||0.03|
|Chicken breast, broiled, ½ breast||0.03|
|Tea, brewed, 1 cup||0.02|
|Onions, raw, chopped, 1 tablespoon||0.02|
|Ice cream, ½ cup||0.02|
|Bread, white, 1 slice||0.01|
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed Daily Values (DVs) to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. Because the FNB has not established an RDA or AI for boron , boron does not have a DV .
Boron is available in dietary supplements containing only boron and in supplements containing boron in combination with a few other nutrients, often other minerals. Common amounts of elemental boron in dietary supplements range from 0.15 to 6 mg .
In dietary supplements, boron is present in many different forms, including sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, boron amino acid chelate, boron ascorbate, boron aspartate, boron citrate, boron gluconate, boron glycinate, boron picolinate, and calcium fructoborate [6,27]. In a small human study, boron as sodium tetraborate significantly increased plasma boron levels within 4–6 hours of consumption , but no data are available on the relative bioavailability of different forms of supplemental boron.
The Supplement Facts label on a dietary supplement product declares the amount of elemental boron in the product, not the weight of the entire boron-containing compound.
Boron Intakes and Status
According to data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988-1994) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994–1996), median dietary boron intakes range from 0.87 to 1.35 mg/day in adults, 1.05 to 1.08 mg/day in pregnant women, and 0.75 to 0.96 mg/day in school-aged children . Vegetarians tend to have higher intakes of boron than nonvegetarians because boron is plentiful in plant foods . The median dietary boron intake in lactating women is 1.27 mg/day . Boron intakes are about 0.55 mg/day among infants and about 0.54 mg/day among toddlers .
Total median boron intakes from dietary supplements and foods are about 1.0 to 1.5 mg/day for adults .
In humans, boron deficiency signs and symptoms have not been firmly established. Limited data suggest that boron deficiency might affect brain function by reducing mental alertness and impairing executive brain function [1,8,28]. In addition, a low-boron diet (0.25 mg boron/2,000 kcal) might elevate urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and lower serum concentrations of estrogen in postmenopausal women [8,29]. Low boron intakes (0.23 mg boron/2,000 kcal) also appear to reduce plasma calcium and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and raise serum calcitonin and osteocalcin levels in men and women ; these changes could affect bone mineral density.
Boron and Health
This section focuses on three health areas in which boron might be involved: osteoarthritis, bone health, and cancer.
Observational evidence combined with the findings from a few small clinical studies in humans suggests that boron might be helpful for reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis, possibly by inhibiting inflammation [3,30-33].
In a small pilot study that compared 6 mg boron per day for 8 weeks with placebo, the supplements reduced symptoms of osteoarthritis in 20 participants younger than 75 years (mean age about 65 years) . Another 8-week study in 20 patients with mild to moderate or severe osteoarthritis found that 6 mg/day boron as calcium fructoborate for mild to moderate osteoarthritis or 12 mg/day boron for severe disease reduced joint rigidity and the use of ibuprofen for pain and increased mobility and flexibility, . However, this study was very small and not blinded or placebo-controlled.
A subsequent double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined the effects of 1.5, 3, or 6 mg/day boron (as calcium fructoborate) for 2 weeks on inflammatory biomarkers (e.g., C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) in 60 participants with osteoarthritis aged 59–68 years . Supplementation significantly reduced inflammatory markers. In another double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, supplementation with 6 mg/day boron (as calcium fructoborate) for 2 weeks significantly reduced knee discomfort in 60 adults (mean age 50 years) with self-reported knee discomfort .
These findings suggest that boron, particularly as calcium fructoborate, might hold promise for reducing osteoarthritis symptoms, but confirmation is needed from additional controlled trials.
Boron might be important for bone growth and formation, possibly by affecting osteoblast and/or osteoclast activity or by influencing serum steroid hormone levels and calcium metabolism [4,6,11,32]. Animal studies indicate that boron deficiency causes abnormal limb development; delayed maturation of growth plates; and decreased bone strength, bone volume fraction, and trabecular thickness [6,35].
Comparisons of animals receiving boron supplementation with animals that consume usual or small amounts of boron show that the supplementation improves some measures of bone strength [36-38]. However, in an observational study in 134 Korean women (average age 41 years), boron intakes (mean of 0.9 mg/day) were not significantly correlated with bone mineral density in the lumbar spine or femoral regions .
In a placebo-controlled clinical trial of 17 female athletes (mean age 19.8 years) and 11 sedentary females (mean age 20.3 years), 3 mg/day boron supplementation for 10 months significantly reduced serum phosphorus levels and increased serum magnesium levels in sedentary females; such changes are often associated with increased bone mineral density . However, supplementation in this study did not directly affect bone mineral density.
Additional research is needed to determine whether boron supplementation affects bone health in humans.
Preliminary evidence suggests that dietary boron intake might affect cancer risk. Several observational studies found that boron intakes are inversely associated with prostate cancer risk in men and with lung and cervical cancer risk in women [1,9,41-44]. For example, in a case control study of 763 women with lung cancer and 838 healthy women, those in the lowest quartile of boron intake (less than 0.78 mg/day) had almost twice the risk of lung cancer of those in the highest quartile (more than 1.25 mg/day) . An observational study in Turkey evaluated two criteria for prostate cancer risk, prostate size and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Men with higher boron intakes (about 6 mg/day) had significantly smaller prostate glands than men who consumed less boron (0.64–0.88 mg/day) . However, PSA levels did not differ significantly between the two groups.
No clinical trials have evaluated the effects of boron on cancer prevention or treatment. More research is needed to understand the effects, if any, of boron on cancer.
Health Risks from Excessive Boron
No data are available on adverse effects of high boron intakes from food or water .
Symptoms associated with accidental consumption of boric acid or borax (sodium borate), contained in some household cleaning products and pesticides, include nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort, vomiting, diarrhea, skin flushing, rash, excitation, convulsions, depression, and vascular collapse [2,6,46]. The amount of boron consumed in people who accidentally consumed boron ranged from 18 to 9,713 mg, and most were children younger than 6 years . Boron toxicity can also cause headache, hypothermia, restlessness, weariness, renal injury, dermatitis, alopecia, anorexia, and indigestion. In infants, high boron intakes have caused anemia, seizures, erythema, and thin hair . Extremely high doses of boron can be fatal; for example, 15,000 to 20,000 mg can cause death in adults [6,9].
The FNB established boron ULs for healthy individuals based on levels associated with reproductive and developmental effects in animals .
|Birth to 6 months||None established*||None established*|
|7–12 months||None established*||None established*|
|1–3 years||3 mg||3 mg|
|4–8 years||6 mg||6 mg|
|9–13 years||11 mg||11 mg|
|14–18 years||17 mg||17 mg||17 mg||17 mg|
|19+ years||20 mg||20 mg||20 mg||20 mg|
* Breast milk, formula, and food should be the only sources of boron for infants.
Interactions with Medications
Boron is not known to have any clinically relevant interactions with medications.
Boron and Healthful Diets
The federal government’s 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that “Because foods provide an array of nutrients and other components that have benefits for health, nutritional needs should be met primarily through foods. … In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements are useful when it is not possible otherwise to meet needs for one or more nutrients (e.g., during specific life stages such as pregnancy).”
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy dietary pattern as one that:
- Includes a variety of vegetables; fruits; grains (at least half whole grains); fat-free and low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese; and oils.
- Many fruits are rich sources of boron. Potatoes, milk, and milk products also contain boron.
- Includes a variety of protein foods such as lean meats; poultry; eggs; seafood; beans, peas, and lentils; nuts and seeds; and soy products.
- Peanuts and other legumes contain boron.
- Limits foods and beverages higher in added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium.
- Limits alcoholic beverages.
- Stays within your daily calorie needs.
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This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice.
Updated: March 29, 2021 History of changes to this fact sheet
Chemical Name: Disodium tetraborate decahydrate (Ph. Eur.)
Foreign Names: Borax (Latin), Borax (German), Borax (French), Boráx (Spanish)
Sodium Borate (OS: JAN),
Borate de Soude (IS),
Borax médicinale (IS),
CCRIS 4946 (IS),
E 285 (IS: E Number),
Natrium Boricum (IS),
Purified Borax (IS),
Sodium Biborate (IS),
Sodium Pyroborate (IS),
Sodium Tetraborate (IS),
Borax (PH: BP 2016, Ph. Eur. 8),
Sodium Borate (PH: JP XVI, NF 33),
Coel, Poland; Farmina, Poland; Laboratorium Galenowe Olsztyn, Poland; Microfarm, Poland; Prolab, Poland
Aflofarm Farmacja, Poland
Borax / Acide Borique Biogaran (Borax and Boric Acid)
Borax / Acide Borique Zentiva (Borax and Boric Acid)
Dacryoserum (Borax and Boric Acid)
Johnson & Johnson, France; McNeil, Tunisia
Dacryum (Borax and Boric Acid)
Johnson & Johnson, France
Dacudoses (Borax and Boric Acid)
Laboratoires Thea, France
Dacurose (Borax and Boric Acid)
Vakos XT, Czech Republic
Glycerinum boraxatum FoNo VII. Naturland
Milrosina (Borax and Resorcinol)
Natusan (Borax and Boric Acid)
Johnson & Johnson, Spain
Picrato de Butaban (Borax and Butamben)
Sodium Borate Daiwa
Daiwa Pharmaceutical, Japan
Sodium Borate Kaneda Naotaka
Kaneda Naotaka, Japan
Sodium Borate Kenei Sakai
Kenei Sakai Seiyaku, Japan
Sodium Borate Kozakai Seiyaku
Kozakai Seiyaku, Japan
Sodium Borate Mylan
Mylan Seiyaku, Japan
Sodium Borate Nikko Seiyaku
Nikko Seiyaku, Japan
Sodium Borate Shiseido Seiyaku
Shiseido Seiyaku, Japan
Sodium Borate Tatsumi Yakuhin
Tatsumi Yakuhin, Japan
Stéridose (Borax and Boric Acid)
Europhta, France; Europhta, Monaco